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on

William Hogarth (1697-1764)

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William Hogarth:

A Central Figure in

Eighteenth-Century

English Art

and Society

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Sources useful to the study of

William Hogarth

and his paintings and prints

Forthcoming publication:

A Hogarth Bibliography

by

Bernd W. Krysmanski

Did you know that, during the last five decades, Ronald Paulson has written more than sixty publications on William Hogarth? That a dozen papers on Hogarth and the London theatre are from the pen of Mary Klinger Lindberg? That Peter Wagner's Reading Iconotexts: From Swift to the French Revolution (1995) contains a modern intertextual, poststructuralist view of William Hogarth and his art? That Dennis Todd and Ronald Paulson interpret Hogarth's Cunicularii as a parody of the Adoration of the Magi? That, according to Werner Busch's Das sentimentalische Bild (1993), Hogarth's Beer Street and Gin Lane seem to allude to the wings of a Last Judgement triptych, i. e. Paradise and Hell? That Michael J. H. Liversidge published a booklet on Hogarth's Bristol Altar-Piece? That Bernd Krysmanski, in his Hogarth's Hidden Parts (2010), raises the question whether Hogarth could have had connections with the paedophilic subculture of eighteenth-century London? That Christian Ludwig von Hagedorn, as early as in 1762, wrote an excellent study on Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty?

If you didn't know and you are currently working on William Hogarth, his art, and the eighteenth-century, then you should consult the forthcoming, annotated, international two-volume Hogarth Bibliography by the German art historian and Hogarth expert, Bernd Krysmanski. This book will give you many more new insights in the vast amount of primary and secondary source literature on the famous English artist William Hogarth.
Two volumes.

Publisher: Georg Olms, Hildesheim, Zurich, New York.

ISBN 3-487-10971-9.


In the last three centuries many books, exhibition catalogues, articles and scholarly essays have been written on William Hogarth, his work, his life and times and his literary relationships, but attempts at a bibliography have been rare and indeed imperfect. This bibliography tries to avoid the drawbacks of the past and lists all printed matter which has come to the compiler's notice, from Hogarth's lifetime up to the present day. It is intended for readers who are in need of quick references concerning a single work of art or writing by or on Hogarth, or a specific subject connected with Hogarth. Part One lists all of Hogarth's paintings, drawings and engravings together with his writings in alphabetical order, each work having its special bibliographical reference. Part Two is a thematically arranged bibliography relating to miscellaneous subjects concerning Hogarth's life, his art, his attitudes to other artists and writers, as well as eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth-century criticisms of his work. This is an indispensible study for the serious student of William Hogarth and for all art historians, general historians, philologists, and other scholars working with reference to eighteenth-century England.

Publisher: Georg Olms
Hagentorwall 7, D-31134 Hildesheim, Germany
Tel.: ++49 5121 15010; Fax: ++49 5121 150150
Email: info@olms.de

USA: Empire State Building, 350 Fifth Avenue, Suite 3304
New York, NY 10118 0069



As the publication date of the Hogarth Bibliography has again been delayed for some months, I would be most interested in hearing from anyone currently working on William Hogarth and his period who would like to see his/her study listed in my bibliography. Please send the full title and details of paper, thesis, or other publication (including those in progress) to the address below as soon as possible.


Dr. Bernd Krysmanski
THG
Voerder Str. 30
D-46535 Dinslaken
Germany
Email: hogarth_bibliographer(AT)web.de








Further, if you are looking for important and current books about William Hogarth, his art and times; for names of experts who have extensively written on Hogarth; for source literature on specific works (such as Hogarth's Enthusiasm Delineated, Credulity Superstition and Fanaticism, A Rake's Progress, Marriage A-la-Mode, The Sleeping Congregation, The Gate of Calais, Beer Street and Gin Lane, The Analysis of Beauty, etc.); or online essays, picture galleries and other resources on William Hogarth, then this is the site for you to both participate in and to access for vital data. Not least, if you carry out your research here you will save yourself a lot of time and trouble.



CONTENTS OF WEBSITE









FOR OTHER PUBLICATIONS ON WILLIAM HOGARTH BY THE SAME AUTHOR, SEE:



Bernd W. Krysmanski, Hogarth's 'Enthusiasm Delineated': Nachahmung als Kritik am Kennertum, Eine Werkanalyse, Zugleich ein Einblick in das sarkastisch-aufgeklärte Denken eines "Künstlerrebellen" im englischen 18. Jahrhundert, 2 vols., Hildesheim, Zurich, New York: Georg Olms, 1996.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Hagarty, not Hogarth? The True Defender of English 'Wit and Humour'", in The Dumb show: Image and society in the works of William Hogarth, ed. Frédéric Ogée, Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1997 [Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 357], 141-59.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "O the Roast Beef of Old England: Hogarth in BSEfreier Zeit vor dem Tor von Calais", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1997 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 1998], 29-52, 115, 178, 195, 217.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Hogarth's A Rake's Progress: An 'Anti-Passion' in Disguise", 1650-1850: Ideas, Aesthetics, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era, 4 (1998), 137-82.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "We see a Ghost: Hogarth's Satire on Methodists and Connoisseurs", Art Bulletin, 80 (June 1998), 292-310.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Lust in Hogarth's Sleeping Congregation - Or, How to Waste Time in Post-Puritan England", Art History, 21, no. 3 (September 1998), 393-408.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Hogarth's 'A Rake's Progress' als 'Anti-Passion' Christi (Teil 1)", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1998 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 1999], 204-42.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Patriotisches Rindfleisch, Pariser Pantinen und eine jakobitische Krähe: Ein auf Erkenntnissen von Katharina Braum fußender Nachtrag zu Hogarths 'Gate of Calais' nebst einer ergänzenden Hypothese von Elizabeth Einberg", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1998 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 1999], 286-92.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Hans-Georg von Arburg, Kunst-Wissenschaft um 1800. Studien zu Georg Christoph Lichtenbergs Hogarth-Kommentaren. Göttingen: Wallstein-Verlag, 1998 (Lichtenberg-Studien. Herausgegeben von Stefan Brüdermann und Ulrich Joost. Band XI)", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1998 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 1999], 347-53. [Book review.]

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Joachim Möller, ed. Hogarth in Context: Ten Essays and a Bibliography (Marburg: Jonas Verlag, 1996); Peter Wagner, Reading Iconotexts: From Swift to the French Revolution (London: Reaktion Books Ltd, 1995)", Eighteenth-Century Studies, 33, no. 1 (Fall 1999), 139-41. [Book reviews.]

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Hogarths 'A Rake's Progress' als 'Anti-Passion' Christi: Ein Erklärungsversuch (Teil 2)", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1999 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 2000], 113-60.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Lichtenbergs Hogarth. Die Kalender-Erklärungen von Georg Christoph Lichtenberg mit den Nachstichen von Ernst Ludwig Riepenhausen zu den Kupferstich-Tafeln von William Hogarth. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Promies, München; Wien: Carl Hanser Verlag 1999", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1999 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 2000], 257-68. [Book review.]

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Benjamin Ralph's School of Raphael (1759): Praise for Hogarth and a Direct Source for Reynolds", British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies, 24 (Spring 2001), 15-32.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "William Hogarths Kritik an der Balance des Peintres: Roger de Piles, Jonathan Richardson, Mark Akenside und Joseph Spence im Fadenkreuz der englischen Satire", in Joachim Möller (ed.), Sister Arts: Englische Literatur im Grenzland der Kunstgebiete, Marburg: Jonas Verlag, 2001, 51-75.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Zum Millennium: ein kurzer Blick auf die vorherrschenden Trends der Hogarth-Forschung", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 2001 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 2002], 194-206.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, Hogarth's Hidden Parts: Satiric Allusion, Erotic Wit, Blasphemous Bawdiness and Dark Humour in Eighteenth-Century English Art, Hildesheim, Zurich, New York: Georg Olms, 2010. [Text based on a paper read on 29 July 1999 at the Tenth International Congress on the Enlightenment, University College, Dublin, 25-31 July 1999.]

* * *

B. Krysmanski, "Hogarth, William", in Allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon: Die Bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker, ed. Andreas Beyer, Bénédicte Savoy and Wolf Tegethoff, vol. 74: Hoelscher-Hornstein (Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2012), 168-76.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Warnings of Morality or Downright Twisted Pleasure? William Hogarth's Depiction of Violence", in Kassandra Nakas / Jessica Ullrich (eds.), Scenes of the Obscene: The Non-Representable in Art and Visual Culture, Middle Ages to Today, Kromsdorf / Weimar: VDG Verlag, 2014, 37-63.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Der pädophile Adelsspross: Warum die arrangierte Ehe 'nach der Mode' scheitern musste. Eine Neubewertung von Hogarths Marriage A-la-Mode aus sexualgeschichtlicher Sicht zum 250jährigen Todestag des Künstlers", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 2013 Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2015], 57-141.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, Das einzig authentische Porträt des Alten Fritz? Entdeckt in Hogarths 'Marriage A-la-Mode.' Is the only true likeness of Frederick the Great to be found in Hogarth's 'Marriage A-la-Mode'? Dinslaken: Krysman Press, 2015.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Lust an der Gewalt? Brutalität und Grausamkeit in Hogarths Bildern", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 2014 [Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2016], 79-114.

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "A Harlot's Progress von William Hogarth: Aufstieg und Fall einer Hure. Ein kurzer Überblick für deutsche Leser", Online Essay, The Site for Research on William Hogarth, 2016.

* * *

Bernd W. Krysmanski, "Introduction: A Brief Account of Hogarth's Life and Work", in Bernd W. Krysmanski (ed.), 250 Years On: New Light on William Hogarth (forthcoming).

* * *

Bernd W. Krysmanski, "The Paedophilic Husband: Why the Marriage A-la-Mode Failed", in Bernd W. Krysmanski (ed.), 250 Years On: New Light on William Hogarth (forthcoming).

* * *

Bernd W. Krysmanski, "Hogarth's Gate of Calais: An Expression of Anti-French Nationalism", in Bernd W. Krysmanski (ed.), 250 Years On: New Light on William Hogarth (forthcoming).

* * *

Bernd W. Krysmanski, "Hogarth and Dürer: A Case of Rejection and Hidden, Ironic Borrowing", in Bernd W. Krysmanski (ed.), 250 Years On: New Light on William Hogarth (forthcoming).

* * *

Bernd W. Krysmanski, "Hogarth's Unknown Caricature of Johnson", in Bernd W. Krysmanski (ed.), 250 Years On: New Light on William Hogarth (forthcoming).

* * *

Bernd Krysmanski, "Is it really Locke? Hogarth's dubious attitudes towards children", in Joachim Möller (ed.), Locke's Legacy in Literature and in the Visual Arts (forthcoming).

* * *

Bernd W. Krysmanski, A Hogarth Bibliography: An Annotated Index on the Source Literature of William Hogarth and his Works, Collated as an Interdisciplinary Research Tool, 2 vols. (forthcoming).







MORE DETAILED INFORMATION ON THE AUTHOR'S PUBLICATIONS ON WILLIAM HOGARTH:



BOOK ON HOGARTH

Bernd Krysmanski, Hogarth's Enthusiasm Delineated: Nachahmung als Kritik am Kennertum. Eine Werkanalyse. Zugleich ein Einblick in das sarkastisch-aufgeklärte Denken eines "Künstlerrebellen" im englischen 18. Jahrhundert.




English title: Hogarth's Enthusiasm Delineated: Borrowing from the Old Masters as a Weapon in the War between an English Artist and self-styled Connoisseurs. A detailed study in iconology against a background of religion, society and culture in mid-eighteenth-century England. Based primarily on primary sources.

2 volumes, Hildesheim, Zurich, New York: Georg Olms, 1996.

ISBN: 3-487-10233-1 and 3-487-10234-X.


Volume 1: main text. Volume 2: summary for English readers, appendix including quotations from contemporary sources, bibliography and index. XVII/1469 pages. 446 illustrations.

Enlarged and slightly revised version of the author's PhD thesis of 1994, now containing, in volume 2, apart from the contemporary sources and the 446 illustrations, a summary for English readers and a comprehensive index. See also the German abstract by the author and the English review by Thomas Krämer, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 33, no. 1 (1999), 143-45.



ABSTRACT


William Hogarth's Enthusiasm Delineated (1761) is an artist's manifesto which could well be renamed "Hogarth Delineated". Its imagery, borrowed - ironically - from "high" art (e.g. from works by Raphael, Dürer, Michelangelo, Correggio, Rubens, Rembrandt or Charles Le Brun), provides the key to a new understanding of the purpose behind Hogarth's taking single motifs from the works of highly reputed Old Masters and using them in new, topical, but often "low" contexts. The author's interdisciplinary study interprets this borrowing method as a cleverly contrived "anti-iconography" with which Hogarth ridicules the English self-styled connoisseurs of his time. A novelty in Hogarth research, the study also contains a thorough formal analysis of the print.

In addition to Enthusiasm Delineated, numerous other Hogarth works are reassessed in detail. A seventy-page excursus deals with the pulpiteer as an artistic motif through the ages. The text includes a great number of original quotations from contemporary periodicals, pamphlets and treatises, concerning the theory of art (eclecticism, picture auctions, criticism of connoisseurship, the profane and blasphemy in art), the history of religion and religious tradition (English Puritanism, deism, Methodism [particularly George Whitefield], antipapism, witchcraft and demonology, iconoclasm, anti-Semitism, antitrinitarianism, the debate on transubstantiation), as well as social, cultural and medical history (the anatomy of the brain, the maltreatment of dogs, physiognomy, eroticism, sex murder, eighteenth-century melancholy, madness, and enthusiasm). Some of these sources are reprinted for the first time and may be of interest not only to art historians, but also to theologians, members of the Methodist Church, general historians, philologists or other scholars working on eighteenth-century England.

Although the book focuses on Enthusiasm Delineated, it invariably leads to new readings of the numerous other works by Hogarth. Literature on Methodism (rather than on Hogarth), for example, allows the preacher sitting next to Tom Idle in the prisoner's cart in Industry and Idleness, Pl. 11 (1747) to be identified as Silas Told (1711-1778). The same print, as a whole, may allude to traditional depictions of a Massacre of the Innocents. The study also shows the extent to which Hogarth's Sigismunda (1759) was influenced by the English Melancholy portrait tradition. A woodcut in Johannes de Ketham's Fasciculo di medicina (1493), depicting an anatomical lesson by Mondino de'Luzzi, can be identified as a direct model for The Reward of Cruelty (Pl. 4 of Hogarth's series The Four Stages of Cruelty; 1751). Fra Angelico's St. Stephen preaching and the Dispute before the Council (1447/50; Vatican, Cappella di Niccolo V) seems to be the model for both Paul before Felix (1748) and Paul before Felix Burlesqued (1751). Hogarth's early print, Masquerades and Operas (1724) has borrowed some motifs from a woodcut by Urs Graf (?) in Hans Heinrich Freiermut's Triumphus veritatis (1524). Hudibras catechized from Hogarth's Twelve Large Illustrations for Samuel Butler's 'Hudibras' (1726) may be a play on Lucas Cranach's Martyrdom of St. Jude Thaddaeus (c. 1512) or Poussin's Massacre of the Innocents (1628/30; Chantilly, Musée Condé). Cruelty in Perfection (1751) probably alludes to Anthony van Dyck's Capture of Christ (c. 1621; Madrid, Prado; repetition, c. 1629, Corsham Court, Bristol Museum and Art Gallery). Chairing the Members from Hogarth's Election series (c. 1754; Sir John Soane's Museum, London) may allude to some details in Raphael's Expulsion of Heliodorus (c. 1512; Stanza d'Eliodoro, Vatican). Dürer's Young Woman attacked by Death (Der Gewalttätige; c. 1494) is the model for Before (1736). Chapter 4.8.3 includes detailed comments on the iconographic backgound of the Harlot and the Rake series.

It should be noted that the study also touches upon a number of other aspects of Hogarth's art. Chapter 4.10.7 looks at dogs in Hogarth's oeuvre, and particularly at the howling Irish Setter in Enthusiasm Delineated. Chapter 4.10.8 explores the Sacrifice of Isaac theme in Hogarth's art, and chapter 6.5 Hogarth's church interiors. It is proposed, for example, that Plate 2 of Industry and Idleness (1747) depicts the interior of St. Peter's, Vere Street (formerly Marybone Chapel), and not of St. Martin-in-the-Fields whose box pews were not introduced into the body of the church until 1799. Apart from questions of content, the book also contains detailed formal analyses of Hogarth's art. Chapter 4.8.4 is about how Hogarth quite deliberately employed his "Line of Beauty (and Grace)" in several of his paintings. General remarks on the formal structure of Hogarth's paintings and engravings can be found in chapter 7. The use of linear perspective is touched upon here, as well as Hogarth's understanding of light and shadow. This chapter also goes into Hogarth's ironic use of the triangle motif.
All in all, the book is a social and cultural history of mid-eighteenth-century London rather than a monograph on a single Hogarth print.


ENGLISH TABLE OF CONTENTS


Volume One

PRELIMINARY NOTES
1

1. FACING THE PROBLEM 22
  • 1.1. A Preacher Mocked 22
  • 1.2. "A Timeless Print?" 23
  • 1.3. The First Impression 24
  • 1.4. The Grotesque in Enthusiasm Delineated 26
  • 1.5. Hogarth's "Advertisement": A First Glance at the Artist's View 29

2. THE ANGLICAN CHURCH FROM HOGARTH'S POINT OF VIEW 30
  • 2.1. Hogarth and the English Clergy 30
  • 2.2. Excursion 1: The Eighteenth-Century Anglican Church 34
  • 2.3. The Sleeping Congregation 42

3. THE PRINT'S FIRST LAYER OF MEANING: RELIGIOUS FANATICISM MOCKED 60
  • 3.1. The Minister as Enthusiast 60
  • 3.2. Excursion 2: George Whitefield and the Methodists 62
  • 3.3. Enthusiasm Delineated: An Anti-Methodist Satire 83
    • 3.3.1. Is that Whitefield in the Print? 83
    • 3.3.2. The Preacher as a Fool 86
    • 3.3.3. The World turned into Hell 93
    • 3.3.4. The Meeting-Place: A Madhouse, a Prison or a "Tabernacle" Scene?104
    • 3.3.5. The Lustful Congregation 120
    • 3.3.6. The Nobleman and Whitefield 144
    • 3.3.7. The Preacher as a Disguised Jesuit 149
    • 3.3.8. The "Poor's Box": just a Mousetrap 154
    • 3.3.9. Hogarth's Early Views on Methodism 158
    • 3.3.10. "Humbly Dedicated to His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury" 161
    • 3.3.11. "A Methodist's Brain" 167
    • 3.3.12. A Mohammedan as Observer 176
  • 3.4. Short Summary 185
  • 3.5. The Point of View has Slightly Changed: Credulity, Superstition and Fanaticism 187
  • 3.6. A Question Thrown In 219

4. THE HIDDEN MEANING OF THE PRINT: A CUTTING PARODY OF HIGH RELIGIOUS ART 222
  • 4.1. Anti-Christian Motifs 222
  • 4.2. Hogarth as Opponent of Sacred Art? 227
  • 4.3. Hogarth versus the Old Masters: The Puppets of the Clergyman 231
    • 4.3.1. God no longer the Almighty? 233
    • 4.3.2. The Devil as the True Ruler of the World 237
    • 4.3.3. Peter 242
    • 4.3.4. Paul 244
    • 4.3.5. Adam and Eve 246
    • 4.3.6. Moses 252
    • 4.3.7. Aaron 258
    • 4.3.8. The Meaning of the Puppets 260
      • 4.3.8.1. A Satire on Puppet-Shows of Old? 260
      • 4.3.8.2. A Play on Baroque Pulpit Ornaments? 263
  • 4.4. Excursion 3: The Eclectic Theory of Art 268
    • 4.4.1. The Origin of the Eclectic Theory in Italy 269
    • 4.4.2. The Movement of the Theories of "Imitation" from Italy to France 271
    • 4.4.3. Eclecticism in Eighteenth-Century England 275
  • 4.5. Eclecticism from Hogarth's Point of View: Borrowing from the Old Masters as an English artist's weapon against the false and antiquated doctrines of self-styled connoisseurs 286
  • 4.6. Contemporary Public Opposition to Connoisseurs and Art Dealers 302
    • 4.6.1. Essays and Plays in 1761 302
    • 4.6.2. A Satire on Picture Auctions: The Real but Disguised Meaning of the Print 319
  • 4.7. The Burlesque Tendency in Hogarth's Art 329
    • 4.7.1. Reynolds's Idler: Forbidden Mixture of the High and Low in Art! 329
    • 4.7.2. Hogarth's England and Dutch Art 333
    • 4.7.3. The Dutch or "Vulgar" Element in Hogarth's Art 338
    • 4.7.4. The "Test of Ridicule" 347
  • 4.8. The Critics' Action and the Artist's Re-Action: Hogarth's Failure in High Art and his Revenge 352
    • 4.8.1. Hogarth's Turn Away from the "Sublime": the Creation of his "Modern Moral Subjects" 352
    • 4.8.2. Hogarth's Ploy: Borrowing from the Old Masters to Exalt Low Art? 361
    • 4.8.3. Some Examples of Hogarth's Borrowing from the "Sublime" 364
    • 4.8.4. Hogarth's "Anti-Iconography" as a Method of Exposing "Connoisseurs" 387
  • 4.9. Excursion 4: English Iconoclastic Tradition 411
    • 4.9.1. Three Principal Reformers from the Continent 414
    • 4.9.2. Iconoclasm in Pre-Reformation England 417
    • 4.9.3. The Iconoclastic Attitude of English Reformers 422
    • 4.9.4. The Roman Catholic Reaction at the Council of Trent 428
    • 4.9.5. Puritan Radicalism and the Oppression of Archbishop Laud's Conservatism 430
    • 4.9.6. After the Restoration 438
    • 4.9.7. The Question of "Images" in Hogarth's England 445
      • 4.9.7.1. "Grand Tourists" and Continental Idolatry 445
      • 4.9.7.2. Anglican Churchmen as Advocates of Pictures 449
      • 4.9.7.3. The Opinion of British Artists, Critics, and Connoisseurs 452
      • 4.9.7.4. The Pros and Cons of Representing God as an Old Man 464
      • 4.9.7.5. Contemporary Discussion of Religious Art: The Ornaments of Churches Considered (1761) 470
  • 4.10. Enthusiasm Delineated: The Motifs Parodied in the Lower Half of the Print 476
    • 4.10.1. The Cherubim 477
    • 4.10.2. The "Fallen Lady" 484
    • 4.10.3. The Cowering Dark Woman Sitting in the Shade of the Clerk's Lectern 517
    • 4.10.4. The Turk and the "Blessed Virgin" 531
    • 4.10.5. The Jew 539
    • 4.10.6. The "Mob" in the Back Pews 553
    • 4.10.7. The Dog 561
    • 4.10.8. Abraham's Sacrifice of Isaac 575
    • 4.10.9. Enthusiasm Delineated as an Anti-Eucharistic Demonstration 586
    • 4.10.10. The Holy Spirit appearing in a Murderer's Brain 615
    • 4.10.11. The Weeping Criminal: A Portrait of the Artist Theodore Gardelle 620
    • 4.10.12. The Holy Ghost as a "mighty rushing Wind" 636
    • 4.10.13. A Paradox: Sex, Crime and Protestant Religious Art 643
    • 4.10.14. Enthusiasm Delineated as an Antitrinitarian, Polytheistic Work of Art 655
  • 4.11. Short Summary 673
  • 4.12. Who is the Clerk? 676

5. "ENTHUSIASM" AS "LEITMOTIF" 688
  • 5.1. Eighteenth-Century "Enthusiasms" 688
  • 5.2. The "Mental Thermometer" - A Scale of "Enthusiasm"? 708
  • 5.3. Fine Arts Enthusiasm 728
  • 5.4. A Call for Pulpit Enthusiasts 743

6. THE PULPITEER AS MOTIF IN ART: AN ICONOGRAPHIC SURVEY 755
  • 6.1. Preacher-Motifs from Earliest Times to the End of Early Renaissance Art 755
  • 6.2. Sixteenth-Century Preachers in anti-papist, didactic, genre and satirical Contexts 767
  • 6.3. The Image of the Preacher in Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth-Century Art: Mainly Ecstatic? 783
  • 6.4. Preachers in Eighteenth-Century English (and French) Art 800
  • 6.5. Hogarth's Views of Church Interiors 805
  • 6.6. Satires on Orator John Henley as Models for Hogarth's Preacher? 812
  • 6.7. Short Summary 823

7. FORMAL ANALYSIS 825
  • 7.1. The Pictorial Space 825
  • 7.2. Brute, compulsive Vulgarity amidst angular Austerity 831
  • 7.3. A Piercing Light: Hogarth's Playful Juxtaposition of Classical and Baroque Devices 840
  • 7.4. The Total Negation of Classical Composition 853
  • 7.5. Roger de Piles' Balance as Puppet-Show 873
  • 7.6. Short Summary 877

8. CONCLUSION 879


Volume Two


9. SUMMARY FOR ENGLISH READERS
895

10. APPENDIX 905
  • 10.1. Contemporary Sources 907
    • 10.1.1. "Of Connoisseurs in Painting" 907
    • 10.1.2. "Of Connoisseurs in Painting, Letter II" 912
    • 10.1.3. "On the Exhibition of the Artists" 916
    • 10.1.4. "Projected Exhibition of the Sign Painters" 919
    • 10.1.5. The Life of Theodore Gardelle, Limner and Enameller 921
  • 10.2. Bibliography 933
  • 10.3. List of Illustrations 1011
  • 10.4. Illustrations 1026
  • 10.5. Index 1241-1469



For a revised and extended English version of chapter 7.5 of the book on Hogarth's Enthusiasm Delineated, see the online essay, "Upsetting the Balance: William Hogarth and Roger de Piles".







SHORT ABSTRACTS OF THE AUTHOR'S PUBLISHED ARTICLES ON WILLIAM HOGARTH




Bernd Krysmanski, "Hagarty, not Hogarth? The True Defender of English 'Wit and Humour'", in The Dumb show: Image and society in the works of William Hogarth, ed.
Frédéric Ogée, Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1997 [Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 357], 141-59.

This essay proposes the hypothesis that the Irish artist James Hagarty (fl. 1762-1783), not Hogarth, was the leading artistic force behind Bonnell Thornton's parodic Sign Painters' Exhibition of 1762, and that Hogarth's involvements in court art and his turning away from "modern moral subjects" at the end of his life seems to have been one of the targets of the satirical exhibits presented at that show.


* * *



Bernd Krysmanski, "'O the
Roast Beef of Old England': Hogarth in BSEfreier Zeit vor dem Tor von Calais", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1997 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 1998], 29-52, 115, 178, 195, 217.

This is an extended version of a paper first read on 6 July, 1997 at the twentieth annual meeting of the Lichtenberg-Gesellschaft in Ober-Ramstadt (the birthplace of the famous German Hogarth commentator Georg Christoph Lichtenberg) on the occasion of Hogarth's tercentenary. It explains the nationalist implications of the English taste for roast beef and the Francophobe and antipapist sideswipes and puns in Hogarth's The Gate of Calais. The paper compares, in addition, the gate as shown in the picture with a traditional Gate of Hell and the contrasting motifs of a fat monk and meager French soldiers with Bosch's Gula and Bruegel's Poor and Rich Kitchen. It also includes a brief discussion of Steve Bell's political caricature of 1996 after Hogarth's print.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "
Patriotisches Rindfleisch, Pariser Pantinen und eine jakobitische Krähe: Ein auf Erkenntnissen von Katharina Braum fußender Nachtrag zu Hogarths 'Gate of Calais' nebst einer ergänzenden Hypothese von Elizabeth Einberg", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1998 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 1999], 286-92.

Additional remarks on the foregoing essay, focusing on the Francophobe motif of wooden shoes and the crow sitting on the cross of the gate in Hogarth's painting of The Gate of Calais, and including a hitherto unpublished hypothesis by Elizabeth Einberg on the motif of the crow.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "Hogarth's A Rake's Progress: An 'Anti-Passion' in Disguise", 1650-1850: Ideas, Aesthetics, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era, 4 (1998), 137-82.

This is an enlarged version of a paper first delivered in September, 1993 at the Paul MellonCentre for Studies in British Art, London, on the occasion of a colloquium on English eighteenth and nineteenth-century art in recent German scholarship. The essay interprets the eight-picture Rake's Progress series as an allusion to the life of Christ. According to this reading, the first scene is the Raising of the Cross; the second the Flagellation; followed in Plate 3 by the Washing of the Feet at a rather "obscene" Last Supper. Scene 4 alludes to Hans Holbein's Noli me tangere and to the Soldiers drawing Lots for Jesus' Cloak; Plate 5 to a Florentine Marriage of the Virgin; followed in Plate 6 by a parody of Raphael's Transfiguration. The seventh scene may play on either the Repose of Christ or Christ's Imprisonment, with some details perhaps borrowed from a Temptation of St Antony or a Harrowing of Hell. The pictorial drama closes with the Lamentation of Scene 8.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "Hogarth's 'A Rake's Progress' als 'Anti-Passion' Christi (Teil 1)",
Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1998 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 1999], 204-42; and "Hogarths 'A Rake's Progress' als 'Anti-Passion' Christi: Ein Erklärungsversuch (Teil 2)", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1999 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 2000], 113-60.

An extended and reorganized German version of the foregoing English essay, now published in two parts. Includes additional material in order to support the view that the whole Rake series alludes to the life of Christ. The second part evaluates in detail Hogarth's blasphemous tendency to profane traditional subjects of Christian iconography in his works, thereby interpreting this negative secularisation as deistic satire tinged with black humour, and as a "test of ridicule" aimed at the self-styled English connoisseurs.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "We see a Ghost: Hogarth's Satire on
Methodists and Connoisseurs", Art Bulletin, 80 (June 1998), 292-310.

This paper compares the Hogarth print, Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism (1762) with its rather different, unpublished first state, Enthusiasm Delineated (1761). The published version of the engraving is discussed as a satire on Methodist fanaticism. However, the first state, which is obscured by the second, is revealed as a polemic on shopworn academic French art theory and on a misplaced, even erotically passionate, enthusiasm for the Old Masters. See also Satires of William Hogarth: Two Prints on Religious Enthusiasm.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "
Lust in Hogarth's Sleeping Congregation - Or, How to Waste Time in Post-Puritan England", Art History, 21, no. 3 (September 1998), 393-408.

This contribution suggests that the overriding theme of the engraved version of The Sleeping Congregation is Hogarth's post-Puritan view of the old vice of Acedia (indolence or sloth). The essay shows that the print, in Hogarth's typical irony, updates a long pictorial and literary tradition of sleeping during a sermon; sleep, the characteristic signifier of indolence combined with lustful thoughts, a vice that a hard working and ambitious member of the rising middle-class such as Hogarth would have had little patience with. See also this pdf version of the essay.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "
Lichtenbergs Hogarth. Die Kalender-Erklärungen von Georg Christoph Lichtenberg mit den Nachstichen von Ernst Ludwig Riepenhausen zu den Kupferstich-Tafeln von William Hogarth. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Promies, München; Wien: Carl Hanser Verlag 1999", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1999 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 2000], 257-68.

Lengthy review of Wolfgang Promies's annotated new edition of Georg Christoph Lichtenberg's early Hogarth commentaries which first appeared between 1784 and 1796 in the Göttinger Taschen Calender. These interesting descriptions of Hogarth's satirical prints are not identical with Lichtenberg's famous Ausführliche Erklärung der Hogarthischen Kupferstiche (1794-1799) and have never been translated into English. There is also a short, modified online version of this review essay.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "Benjamin Ralph's School of Raphael (1759): Praise for Hogarth and a Direct Source for Reynolds", British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies, 24 (Spring 2001), 15-32.

Extended and elaborated version of a paper read on 26 July 1999 at the Tenth International Congress on the Enlightenment, University College, Dublin, 25-31 July 1999. The essay reconsiders the origin of one of Sir Joshua Reynolds's earliest published articles, which appeared in Samuel Johnson's Idler magazine in 1759 and parodied the self-styled "Connoisseur". Eager to find faults in Raphael's Cartoons, Reynolds's "Connoisseur" uses them to air his familiarity with academic rules and modern art theory, citing the "Line of Beauty and Grace", the need for variety, and the virtues of pyramidal design. To date, scholars have therefore presumed the essay to have been a direct response to the theories promoted by Hogarth in his Analysis of Beauty (1753).
The present study challenges this, with the examination of a less known book which appeared only four months before the Idler essay - Benjamin Ralph's The School of Raphael, or the Student's Guide to Expression in Historical Painting. The book was written for the use of all, like Hogarth's Analysis, and teaches skill and good taste by examples engraved after the Raphael Cartoons. It combines older academic ideas and "modern" theories promoted by Hogarth, dealing with contrast and variety in pictures, the pyramidal composition, and repeating Hogarth's exhortation to study nature and the "Line of Beauty".
It is unknown how well, if at all, Benjamin Ralph was acquainted with Hogarth. However, an etching of Four Heads from the Raphael Cartoons at Hampton Court, allegedly part of Hogarth's personal estate and released posthumously by his widow in 1781, hints at a direct contact between the two men, as these Heads resemble the illustrations in the second part of the School of Raphael.
Ralph's book promotes an unusual fusion of academic and Hogarthian terms. To Reynolds, such theories were an anathema. They were flawed and could not subsist together. Thus, it is suggested that Reynolds responded by parodying the new ideas in the dilettantish posturing of his "Connoisseur" in the Idler.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "William Hogarths Kritik an der Balance des Peintres: Roger de Piles, Jonathan Richardson, Mark Akenside und Joseph Spence im Fadenkreuz der englischen Satire", in
Joachim Möller (ed.), Sister Arts: Englische Literatur im Grenzland der Kunstgebiete, Marburg: Jonas Verlag, 2001, 51-75.

This paper further argues a point made in the author's book on Hogarth's Enthusiasm Delineated and the "We see a Ghost" essay. It interprets the preacher in Hogarth's Enthusiasm Delineated primarily as an art dealer, and, as he is weighing works by Raphael and Rubens, the favourite painters of Roger de Piles, reads the whole scene as an ironic allusion to de Piles's Balance des Peintres, the notorious "hit parade" guide for eighteenth-century connoisseurs of painting. This Balance, much admired by Jonathan Richardson, Mark Akenside and Joseph Spence, was ridiculed in mid-eighteenth-century England by Allan Ramsay and satirists like Laurence Sterne. The essay also includes a new interpretation of the two cherubim depicted in Hogarth's Enthusiasm Delineated.







BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY




Bernd Krysmanski, "Zum Millennium: ein kurzer Blick auf die vorherrschenden Trends der Hogarth-Forschung",
Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 2001 [Saarbrücken: SDV, 2002], 194-206.

Survey of the major trends in modern Hogarth scholarship. Shows that many writers are ceding to the new historicism and socio-critical interpretations of Hogarth's life and art, or that they concentrate either on gender-specific standpoints or the text-image interrelationships.







MORE RECENT PUBLICATIONS



Bernd Krysmanski, Hogarth's Hidden Parts: Satiric Allusion, Erotic Wit, Blasphemous Bawdiness and Dark Humour in Eighteenth-Century English Art, Hildesheim, Zurich, New York: Georg Olms, 2010.

The patient eye will discover, slipped as incidentals into some of the most unlikely scenes, Hogarth's satirical scope reaching the proverbial parts that decorum would avoid. True, Hogarth never depicted the human genitalia openly, as pornographic prints of the time did; but it seems that he had a malicious delight in lampooning via the genital, the priapic and privy in allusive form - not only in sexual contexts. In The March to Finchley, The Enraged Musician, in two of his Hudibras illustrations, or in Chairing the Members he depicted urinating boys or men. Such smutty motifs were expected only in "low" Dutch genre pictures at that time, and it is possible that in Hogarth's paintings and prints these motifs serve to characterize the low social milieu of his contemporaries.
In other cases animals' sex organs served Hogarth to reflect on human mores, as in the second scene of Marriage A-la-Mode, where a dog at the side of the rather worn-out Viscount ironically recalls his sexual activity of the previous night, or in The Sleeping Congregation, where the lustful thoughts of the whole congregation seem embodied in the shamelessly huge member of the lion of the royal arms emblazoned on the wall of the church.
Other objects could serve as well. In Enthusiasm Delineated the edging of a pulpit cushion alludes to the preacher's exhibitionist tendency. In the Emblematical Print of the South Sea Scheme the wooden horses of a merry-go-round are shaped like grotesque phalluses. In A Harlot's Progress a toppling pile of buckets (in the first scene) and the spilling of a glass of brandy (in the last scene) are close to an orgasmic match. In Noon a stone post of a London street, on top of which a little boy has broken a dish, insinuates a giant erect penis, the broken dish a symbol of defloration. In Evening the walking cane a little boy rides also looks like a phallus and symbolises infantile sexuality. In the first scene of Marriage A-la-Mode, the cannon shot shown in a Baroque portrait of an English Lord refers to the aristocrat's past potency. And the wooden sceptre of a naked masturbating mad "king" in the Bedlam scene of A Rake's Progress gives us to understand that sexual potency has taken the place of regal power.
We can also detect allusions to the female pudenda in some of Hogarth's prints, for instance, in Cunicularii in the curtains of a four-poster bed on which a woman lies in labour, or even in the mocked symbol of the Holy Trinity, which is shown turned upside down in The Sleeping Congregation.
Such hidden motifs suggest that the artist, apparently no child of sorrow, deliberately concealed ambiguous details in his pictures, not only with a moral purpose in mind, but also for his own and his viewers' titillation.

Parts of the volume are based on a paper read on 29 July 1999 at the Tenth International Congress on the Enlightenment, University College, Dublin, 25-31 July 1999. However, the book includes a more detailed analysis of the suggestive motifs in Hogarth's art and the presumedly libertine aspects of his life. Furthermore, Hogarth is shown here as a dark humorist who produced blasphemous motifs that satirically lambasted high religious art and debunked the eighteenth-century taste for Old Master work.

See also the reviews by Kate Grandjouan, Sean Shesgreen and Katherine Mannheimer. According to Shesgreen, "Hogarth's Hidden Parts is a volume of immense scholarship, based on exhaustive and thoughtful readings in the literature of art and social history (…). It is also a study of great breadth, both in the works Mr. Krysmanski analyzes and in the themes he treats, making it a small encyclopedia on Hogarth (as weIl as on his aesthetic and literary relationships). It is particularly strong in locating Hogarth in the context of European art (…); in all, the volume offers 304 images, some of them arcane and difficult to find. The book is carefully and exhaustively indexed (…). In all these respects, Hogarth's Hidden Parts stands as a lively, iconoclastic commentary that must be consulted and reckoned with by any serious art historian."


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B. Krysmanski, "Hogarth, William", in
Allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon: Die Bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker, ed. Andreas Beyer, Bénédicte Savoy and Wolf Tegethoff, vol. 74: Hoelscher-Hornstein (Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2012), 168-76.

Biographical article written in German for the Allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon (the new Thieme-Becker). Includes a list of museums and galleries exhibiting paintings by Hogarth and bibliographical references.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "Warnings of Morality or Downright Twisted Pleasure? William Hogarth's Depiction of Violence", in
Kassandra Nakas / Jessica Ullrich (eds.), Scenes of the Obscene: The Non-Representable in Art and Visual Culture, Middle Ages to Today, Kromsdorf / Weimar: VDG Verlag, 2014, 37-63.

Shows that Hogarth's depictions of violent details, which have often been interpreted as heartfelt didactic warnings of moral value, can equally be understood as platforms of sadistic delight and rapture instilling in beholders frissons of harm, torment or sexual abuse, as the many participants in violent action, enjoyment of horror films and brutal computer gaming do today. It is possible to surmise that Hogarth, as a shrewd observer of London's brutal and bloody world, liked such scenes, which were considered sublime by eighteenth-century critics such as Abbé Du Bos, Edmund Burke and Denis Diderot.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "Der pädophile Adelsspross: Warum die arrangierte Ehe 'nach der Mode' scheitern musste. Eine Neubewertung von Hogarths Marriage A-la-Mode aus sexualgeschichtlicher Sicht zum 250jährigen Todestag des Künstlers",
Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 2013 [Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2015], 57-141.

Detailed new interpretation of the Marriage A-la-Mode series from a sexual point of view. Shows that it was primarily the freely lived paedophilia of Viscount Squanderfield that gave the impetus for the infidelity of his wife and led to the failure of the arranged marriage. Suggests that the Viscount must have infected his wife's child, whose malformations seem to be the result of Down's syndrome, with syphilis by sexual abuse.


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Bernd Krysmanski, Das einzig authentische Porträt des Alten Fritz? Entdeckt in Hogarths 'Marriage A-la-Mode.' Is the only true likeness of Frederick the Great to be found in Hogarth's 'Marriage A-la-Mode'? Dinslaken: Krysman Press, 2015.

Text in German and English. Shows that none of the extant portraits of Frederick the Great depict the true appearance of the Prussian king and that it was Hogarth who produced the only accurate contemporary representation of the monarch. Suggests that in scene 4 of Marriage A-la-Mode Frederick II is depicted as a gay flautist, with a prominent aquiline nose, accompanying a homosexual castrato on his German flute and mocking a paedophilic lord. It is even more astonishing that Hogarth outed the Prussian king as gay as early as 1744, earlier than any other published document or picture. See also the review by Giles MacDonogh.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "Lust an der Gewalt? Brutalität und Grausamkeit in Hogarths Bildern",
Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 2014 [Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2016], 79-114.

Revised German version of the author's paper, "Warnings of Morality or Downright Twisted Pleasure? William Hogarth's Depiction of Violence" (see above). Includes more and better illustrations than the English version.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "A Harlot's Progress von William Hogarth: Aufstieg und Fall einer Hure. Ein kurzer Überblick für deutsche Leser". Online Essay, The Site for Research on William Hogarth, 2016.

Explanation of the six prints of A Harlot's Progress for German readers. Includes many illustrations not to be found elsewhere and extensive bibliographical references.







Now you can scroll down and read on, or click on the area you are interested in:









PUBLICATIONS ON WILLIAM HOGARTH BY OTHER SCHOLARS, WRITTEN SHORTLY BEFORE AND AFTER THE MILLENNIUM




Mark Hallett, The Spectacle of Difference: Graphic Satire in the Age of Hogarth, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1999.

A revised 259-page version of Hallett's PhD thesis (Courtauld Institute, London, 1996). "This book is not so much interested in historically resurrecting Hogarth as an individual artist as with historically resurrecting the early eighteenth-century satirical engraving as an art form, and demonstrating that it was an ambitious, experimental and multi-faceted branch of graphic culture produced by numerous artists living and working in the English capital, of whom Hogarth was only one." The study combines close readings of individual satirical prints with a broader history of the genre and shows how contemporary graphic satirists like Hogarth, John Sturt, Anthony Walker, John June, Hubert François Gravelot or the two George Bickhams mixed constructs of high and low art to create hybrid and provocative images that dealt with a broad range of controversial issues, including alcoholism, the excesses of fashion, financial collapse, freemasonry, political corruption, and prostitution. Contains "Select Bibliography" (pp. 246-53) and Index (pp. 254-59). See the review by W[illiam] A[rthur] Speck, H-Albion, H-Net Reviews, May, 2000.


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Elizabeth Kathleen Mitchell, Death by Hogarth, exh. cat., Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, Mass., 8 May-18 July 1999.

72-page catalogue focusing on print narratives with references to criminal culture and the melodramatic rituals that accompanied executions, particularly hangings. The author examines Hogarth's prints that present execution - The Idle 'Prentice Executed at Tyburn, A Just View of the British Stage, The Reward of Cruelty, etc. - as one of many unfortunate worldly ends as a result of a life of crime. The catalogue also discusses many other prints from Hogarth's picture series. Contents: Foreword by James Cuno; Introduction, pp. 11-13; "Execution in the Round", pp. 15-28; "Execution Proper", pp. 29-50; "Predetermined Sexuality and 'Feminine' Crimes", pp. 51-68; Bibliography, pp. 69-70; and Index, pp. 71-72.


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Marcia Pointon, Hogarth's 'Sigismunda' in focus, With a technical essay by Rica Jones, exh. cat., Tate Britain, London, 24 July-4 November 2000.

This 40-page catalogue throws new light upon Hogarth's Sigismunda, considering the painting in the context of contemporary debates about female sexual desire, luxury consumption, and the modernity of English art. Includes essays by Marcia Pointon ("Virtue, Excess and Danger", pp. 7-29) and Rica Jones ("Technical Examination of the Alterations in Sigismunda", pp. 30-34), and lists "Works in the Display" (p. 35). See also the contra-critical review by Richard Dorment in The Daily Telegraph, 23 August 2000.


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Matthew Craske, William Hogarth, Princeton: Princeton University Press; London: Tate Gallery Publishing Ltd, 2000.

80-page introduction to Hogarth's varied artistic production, including a survey of his engravings, portraits, and his famous picture series from a socio-historical point of view. The author in desiring not to write a chronological life-story of Hogarth has chosen a series of thematic essays "each devoted to an aspect of the social and cultural history of the period". The book reveals Hogarth as an English nationalist and as a figure who reinvented the very idea of what it is to be an artist. It also sees him as a humourist who brilliantly invented a means of reproducing wit for wider public consumption. The study shows that Hogarth's works were aimed at fostering self-improvement, whereby vice can ruin the aristocrat as swiftly as the harlot, but does so with great humour. We meet an artist emblematic of his time but also ultimately innovative and long-sighted. Contents: Introduction (pp. 6-10); 1. The Freedom of the Times (pp. 11-13); 2. The Ideals and Realities of Self-Improvement (pp. 14-24); 3. 'Britophil' (pp. 25-40); 4. Liberty and Libertinism (pp. 41-57); 5. Hogarth's Sympathy for, and Affinity with, the 'Nobodies' of Society (pp. 58-74).


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Mark Hallett, Hogarth, London: Phaidon Press Limited, 2000.

This well illustrated survey of the artist's life and work shows that Hogarth's art celebrates the benefits of commerce, politeness and patriotism, while simultaneously focusing on the corruption, hypocricy and prejudice they brought in their wake. It provides an account of the full range of his work - from aristocratic portraits, to satiric prints commenting on the darker side of contemporary society. His work is situated within the context of the times, from the contrasing lifestyles of the rich and poor, to crime, fashion, scandal, politics and economics. Contents: 1. Ink: Carving out a Career (pp. 9-38); 2. Paint: Talking Pictures (pp. 39-70); 3. Sex, Disease and Pity: A Harlot's Progress (pp. 71-96); 4. Satire and the City: The Painter of Modern London (pp. 97-132); 5. Charity and Community: Hospital Painting (pp. 133-64); 6. Foreign Affairs: Marriage à la Mode (pp. 165-96); 7. Black and White: A Tale of Two Cities (pp. 197-234); 8. Design for Life: The Analysis of Beauty (pp. 235-60); 9. Faction: Art, Politics and Propaganda (pp. 261-92); 10. Exposure and Retreat: The Final Years (pp. 293-316); 11. Afterlife: Reinventing Hogarth (pp. 317-28); miscellaneous appendices (pp. 329-49).


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Bernadette Fort / Angela Rosenthal (eds.), The Other Hogarth: Aesthetics of Difference, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Trendy collection of fifteen essays by international art historians and cultural theorists who investigate an overlooked dimension of Hogarth's art and aesthetics: the staging of otherness and difference. It shows that, whether Hogarth depicts a harlot; a wealthy patroness; a gouty earl; a dissolute rake; a black servant; an "effeminate parasite"; issues of class; gender; and race, reverberate throughout his paintings and prints and deeply inform his unique innovation, the "modern moral subject". Contents: James Grantham Turner ("'A Wanton Kind of Chace': Display as Procurement in A Harlot's Progress and its Reception"); Frédéric Ogée ("The Flesh of Theory: The Erotics of Hogarth's Lines"); Christina Kiaer ("Professional Femininity in Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn"); Peter Wagner ("Spotting the Symptoms: Hogarthian Bodies as Sites/Sights of Semantic Ambiguity"); Angela Rosenthal ("Unfolding Gender: Women and the 'Secret' Sign Language of Fans in Hogarth's Work"); Mark Hallett ("Manly Satire: William Hogarth's A Rake's Progress"); Richard Meyer (" 'Nature Rever'd': Satire and Sexual Difference in Hogarth's London"); David H. Solkin ("The Fetish Over the Fireplace: Disease as genius loci in Marriage A-la-Mode"); Sarah Maza and Sean Shesgreen ("Marriage in the French and English Manners: Hogarth and Abraham Bosse"); Nadia Tscherny ("An Un-Married Woman: Mary Edwards, William Hogarth, and a Case of Eighteenth-Century British Patronage"); Patricia Crown ("Hogarth's Working Women: Commerce and Consumption"); Amelia Rauser ("Embodied Liberty: Why Hogarth's Caricature of John Wilkes Backfired"); David Bindman (" 'A Voluptuous Alliance Between Africa and Europe': Hogarth's Africans"); Lubaina Himid ("A Fashionable Marriage"); and Bernadette Fort (Lubaina Himid's A Fashionable Marriage: A Postcolonial Hogarthian "Dumbshow").


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David Bindman / Frédéric Ogée / Peter Wagner (eds.), Hogarth: Representing nature's machines, Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2001.

A collection of twelve tercentenary papers by some of the leading authorities on Hogarth. Reveals the artist to have been remarkably aware of the important intellectual issues of his time, for instance, eighteenth-century philosophy and science. The essays are thematically arranged according to three parts: "I: Hogarth's Empiricism", "II: Observing Modern Life"; and "III: Hogarth and Christian Typology". The volume includes contributions by David Bindman (Preface); Frédéric Ogée ("From text to image: William Hogarth and the emergence of a visual culture in eighteenth-century England"; "Je-sais-quoi: William Hogarth and the representation of the forms of life"); Peter Wagner ("Hogarthian frames: The 'new' eighteenth-century aesthetics'"; "Representations of time in Hogarth's paintings and engravings"); John Bender ("Matters of fact: virtual witnessing and the public in Hogarth's narratives"); Michel Baridon ("Hogarth's 'living machines of nature' and the theorisation of aesthetics"); Sean Shesgreen ("William Hogarth's Enraged Musician and the Cries of London"); Mark Hallett ("The view across the city: William Hogarth and the visual culture of eighteenth-century London"); Diana Donald ("This truly natural and faithful painter': Hogarth's depiction of modern life"); Werner Busch ("Hogarth's Marriage A-la-Mode: the dialectic between precision and ambiguity"); David H. Solkin ("The excessive Jew in A Harlot's Progress"); and Ronald Paulson ("Some thoughts on Hogarth's Jew: issues in current Hogarth scholarship").


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Hogarth's Election Entertainment: Artists at the Hustings, ed. David Bindman, David Ekserdjian and Will Palin, exh. cat., Sir John Soane's Museum, London, 23 March-25 August 2001.

Well illustrated 34-page APOLLO Magazine publication on Hogarth's Election series and its influence. Includes short articles by David Bindman, Elizabeth Einberg, Emma Baudey, Eva Pol, Tamatha Blair and Stephanie Eu together with a catalogue of the works exhibited.


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Ronald Paulson, Hogarth's Harlot: Sacred Parody in Enlightenment England, Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, November 2003.

Includes a detailed examination of the parameters of blasphemy in eighteenth-century England and the changing attitudes toward the central tenets of the Christian Church among artists in this period. Explores engravings by Hogarth; poems by John Milton, Alexander Pope, Christopher Smart, William Cowper, and William Blake; plays by Nicholas Rowe and George Lillo; paintings and sculptures by Benjamin West, Johan Zoffany, Joseph Wright of Derby, and Louis-François Roubiliac; and oratorios by George Frederic Handel. Contents: Introduction: The Sacrament of the Eucharist; I. The Atonement; II. Incarnation; III. Redemption; IV. Mediation; and V. Grace. See also the review by Alvan Bregman.


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Stefania Consonni, Linee, intrichi, intrighi: Sull' estetica di William Hogarth. Genoa: Edizioni Culturali Internazionale Genova, 2003.

215-page study on Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty, based on five major principles of his aesthetics. Considers significant but hitherto unpublished thematic, rhetorical, technical, intentional and effective aspects of Hogarth's thinking which has had some influence that persists up to the present. The author has also written a study on Geometrie del tempo: Il romanzo inglese del Settecento (2012).


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Jochen Bedenk, William Hogarth und die deutsche Literatur des 18. Jahrhunderts (Lessing, Herder, Schiller, Jean Paul), Würzburg: Königshausen und Neumann, 2004.

Published version of the author's German PhD thesis. Shows that Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty and his print Tail Piece, or The Bathos had a wider influence on debates about aesthetics in eighteenth-century German literature than hitherto assumed.







MORE RECENT BOOKS BY HOGARTHIAN SCHOLARS


Jeremy Barlow, 'The Enraged Musician': Hogarth's Musical Imagery, Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, December 2005.

The author, a specialist in seventeenth and eighteenth-century English popular music, has written a reference tool for art historians seeking music related information on Hogarth. The book contains information on Hogarth and London's musical scene, the contexts for his musical imagery, his musical accuracy, including a detailed analysis of his representations of particular instruments and a discussion of his realistic and symbolic uses of musical imagery. Later chapters deal with the skimmington or 'rough music' procession in Hogarth's prints for Samuel Butler's Hudibras and the influence this had on his subsequent satirical use of musical imagery; eighteenth-century uses of burlesque music to mock the act of music-making; Hogarth's eight afflicted and humiliated solo fiddlers from Hudibras to The Bruiser; his abject ballad sellers; and The Beggar's Opera as a satire of Italian opera on the one hand and society on the other. The final chapter, on Hogarth's The Enraged Musician print itself, draws together the uses of musical imagery discussed in previous chapters. An exploration of commentary on the print since its publication is followed by an analysis from a musical perspective. In addition, the book contains five appendices: 1. eighteenth-century commentaries on The Enraged Musician, including music of the street cries; 2. ballad texts and tunes related to Hogarth's ballad titles; 3. the complete text of Bonnell Thornton's Burlesque Ode on St Cecilia's Day; 4. text and tunes of the scene in The Beggar's Opera painted by Hogarth; and 5. other musical examples indicated in the text.


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Mark Hallett and Christine Riding, Hogarth, With an essay by Frédéric Ogée and Olivier Meslay and additional catalogue contributions by Tim Batchelor, exh. cat., Musée du Louvre, Paris, 18 October 2006-7 January 2007; Tate Britain, London, 7 February-29 April 2007; La Caixa, Madrid, 29 May-26 August 2007. London: Tate Publishing, 2006.

Catalogue of one of the most comprehensive exhibitions of Hogarth's paintings and prints ever held, examining the whole of his life and work, showing nearly every aspect of Hogarth's multi-faceted career and highlighting his unique contribution to the development of modern British art. The exhibition includes a large number of major loans from private and public collections around the world. The catalogue text discusses "Hogarth's variety", his modernity, the "Pictorial Theatre" of the 1720s, Hogarth's conversation pieces, his moral series, his portraiture, his patriotism and politics, and his depiction of crime and punishment. There are also French and Spanish editions of this catalogue.


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Robin Simon, Hogarth, France and British Art: The rise of the arts in eighteenth-century Britain, London: Hogarth Arts Ltd., Distributed by Paul Holberton Publishing, 2007.

400-page reappraisal of the art and achievement of Hogarth by the Editor of The British Art Journal and previous Editor of Apollo magazine. This book is certainly one of the best art historical studies ever written on Hogarth. It is argued that Hogarth's effective invention of British art was founded upon a profound knowledge of contemporary French art and theory, as British culture in Hogarth's time habitually defined itself in relation to the art and aesthetic theories of France. Therefore, the author conjures up the French and wider European context within which Hogarth's art was formed. The study examines the ways in which Hogarth interacted with and influenced his contemporaries not only in painting and print-making, but also in sculpture, poetry, the novel, the theatre, public life, art education, copyright law, music and opera. See also the review by Douglas Fordham.


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David Bindman (ed.), The History of British Art, 1600-1870, London: Tate Publishing, In association with Tate Britain and Yale Center for British Art, 2008 [The History of British Art, vol. 2].

Brief history of British art from the times of post-Reformation to the birth of the modern era, written by international experts who interpret the art of the period with a focus on social history and from wider European and multicultural perspectives, together with some grains of post-structuralism. Some chapters and sections include scattered information on Hogarth, for instance, William Vaughan's chapter on "Britain and Europe, c.1600-c.1900"; Frédéric Ogée's long essay on "British Art and the Social World"; Peter Wagner's short entry on "Hogarth's 'Modern Moral Subjects' "; and Martin Myrone's chapter on "The British Artist, c.1570-c.1870". See also the review by Brian Lukacher.


* * *



Werner Busch, Englishness: Beiträge zur englischen Kunst des 18. Jahrhunderts von Hogarth bis Romney (Berlin and Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2010).

Collection of excellent German essays dealing with English art of the eighteenth century. The first three essays ("Händel und der Wandel der Konversation"; "Hogarths Marriage A-la-Mode - Zur Dialektik von Detailgenauigkeit und Vieldeutigkeit"; "Hogarths und Reynolds Porträts des Schauspielers Garrick") include discussions of works by Hogarth. See the review by Patrick Bahners, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 28 December 2011.


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Elisabeth Soulier-Détis, "Guess at the Rest": Cracking the Hogarth Code (Cambridge: The Lutterworth Press, 2010).

233-page study claiming that a half-hidden thread of Masonic symbolism runs through Hogarth's work. According to the author, the well-known classical and Biblical references gain coherence and unity when they are analysed in the symbolic framework of freemasonry and alchemy Hogarth was busy both using and concealing in his prints. See also the online version of the Introduction and the review by Andrew Pink.


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Martin Kirves, Das gestochene Argument: Daniel Nikolaus Chodowieckis Bildtheorie der Aufklärung (Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 2012).

German study on Chodowiecki, Shaftesbury and Hogarth, placing the works in the context of Enlightenment philosophy and aesthetics. Includes the following chapters: I. Die Bildfolge (pp. 27-150); II. Shaftesbury (pp. 151-340); III. Hogarth und Lichtenberg (pp. 341-492); and IV. Chodowieckis Seelenmahlerei (pp. 493-578). All of these chapters are divided into many different subsections. See the review by Franz Siepe.


* * *



Mark A. Cheetham, Artwriting, Nation, and Cosmopolitanism in Britain: The "Englishness" of English Art Theory since the Eighteenth Century (Farnham, Surrey and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012).

Arguing in favour of renewed critical attention to the "nation" as a category in art history, this study examines the intertwining of art theory, national identity and art production in Britain from the early eighteenth century to the present day. Detecting "imperial empiricism" among English artists and critics, the author presents new readings of the art theories of such central figures as Hogarth and Reynolds.


* * *



Hans-Peter Wagner, William Hogarth: Das graphische Werk: Ein kommentierter Auswahlkatalog (Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2013).

German catalogue of Hogarth's most important engravings. Introduction and commentaries by Hans-Peter Wagner, who reads the works from a post-structuralist point of view.


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Piers Beirne, Hogarth's Art of Animal Cruelty: Satire, Suffering and Pictorial Propaganda, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan Pivot, 2015.

Deals with Hogarth's representations of animals as hybrids, edibles, companions, emblems of satire and objects of cruelty. Focusing on The Four Stages of Cruelty, often wrongly identified as a milestone in the development of animal rights, the author analyzes how Hogarth's various audiences would have reacted to his gruesome images, and ultimately what they and he likely understood by the term "cruelty".


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Steven Parissien (ed.), Celebrating Britain: Canaletto, Hogarth and Patriotism, exh. cat., Compton Verney, Warwickshire, 14 March-7 June 2015; Holburne Museum, Bath, 27 June-4 October 2015; Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Kendal, 22 October 2015-13 February 2016, London: Paul Holberton publishing, 2015.

Includes a contribution by Jacqueline Riding entitled, "From Bosworth Field to Finchley Common: Britain, Hogarth and the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion."


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David H. Solkin, Art in Britain, 1660-1815, New Haven and London: Yale University Press; Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, 2015 [Pelican History of Art].

Social history of British art of the so-called long eighteenth century, looking at the major developments in painting, drawing, and printmaking during this period. Works by Hogarth are briefly discussed in subchapters such as "Hogarth in the 1720s"; "Manners and Morals: The Conversation-Piece Portrait"; "Hogarth's Progresses"; and "Hogarth as Comic History-Painter and as Critic of the 'Low' ".


* * *



Cynthia Ellen Roman (ed.), Hogarth's Legacy, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2016.

On the artist's afterlife in Britain and internationally. Includes contributions by Cynthia Ellen Roman; Douglas Fordham; Mark Salber Phillips; Brian Maidment; Patricia Mainardi; Michael Printy; Dominic Hardy; and Ronald Paulson.


* * *



Elizabeth Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, New Haven and London: Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art by Yale University Press, 2016.

Comprehensive catalogue of Hogarth's paintings by the well-known senior research fellow at the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and former curator at Tate Britain. Brings together over twenty years of scholarly research and expertise on the artist. Has reproductions of all portraits, history paintings, theater pictures, and genre pieces and detailed entries on each painting, including much previously unpublished material that will be very useful for a generation or longer.







VALUABLE RESOURCES NOT TO BE IGNORED



STANDARD LIVES



For all aspects of Hogarth's life and art, the Hogarth researcher should first consult the modern standard biography:

Ronald Paulson, Hogarth: His Life, Art, and Times, 2 vols., New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1971. Revised edition in three volumes: Ronald Paulson, Hogarth, Volume 1: The "Modern Moral Subject" 1697-1732; Hogarth, Volume 2: High Art and Low, 1732-1750; Hogarth, Volume 3: Art and Poltics, 1750-1764, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press; Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 1991-1993.

This is the definitive work on Hogarth's life, based on archival research, which uses almost all the hitherto published and unpublished sources, e.g. Hogarth's manuscripts, baptismal and burial registers, rate books, records of banks and insurance companies, memoirs and letters of contemporaries, and notices in periodicals, including Hogarth's own advertisements. The study sets out, in addition, to show "how Hogarth's background, milieu, personal life, and aesthetic ideas contributed to produce and define his unique kind of art". The author realises, in the context of Augustan literature, that Hogarth's art is based on parodic allusions to specific images as a vehicle of satire. The first edition also contains important appendices in volume 2, not to be found in the revised version of 1991-1993. On the other hand, the new edition deals with several new aspects of Hogarth and his art, e.g. his politics, aesthetics and deistic attitudes, thus correcting a great many small errors of the former edition.


* * *



Jenny Uglow, Hogarth: A Life and a World, London: Faber and Faber Limited, 1997.

Another modern comprehensive, well written and well reviewed 794-page biography in one volume. The book links Hogarth's achievement to his times, placing his fierce nationalism and his philanthropic interests within the competitive world of the artists and the profound eighteenth-century re-thinking of culture and 'politeness'. See also the review by Michael Kimmelman, The New York Times, November 30, 1997.







OEUVRE CATALOGUES OF WILLIAM HOGARTH'S PAINTINGS




R[onald] B[rymer] Beckett, Hogarth, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1949 [English Master Painters, Edited by Herbert Read].

Well-known catalogue of Hogarth's paintings, including a 31-page Introduction; a catalogue divided into: I. Portrait Groups, II. Single Portraits, III. Miscellaneous; an Index of Collections; and 202 black-and-white plates.


* * *



Gabriele Baldini / Gabriele Mandel, L'opera completa di Hogarth pittore, Milan: Rizzoli Editore, 1967 [Classici dell'arte, 15].

A comprehensive catalogue of Hogarth's paintings, including many good colour illustrations, but, as it is not written in English, often ignored by Anglo-American scholars. The apparatus criticus is divided into a "Bibliografia essenziale" (p. 82), a chronology ("Documentazione sull'uomo e l'artista", pp. 83-85), and the chronologically arranged "Catalogo delle opere" (pp. 86-117). The volume closes with two indices: the "Indice dei titoli e del temi" (pp. 118-19) and the useful "Indice topografico" (pp. 119-20). The catalogue, however, includes some mistakes, e.g. Joseph Porter is wrongly named "Forter".


* * *



Elizabeth Einberg, William Hogarth: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, New Haven and London: Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art by Yale University Press, 2016.

New and well illustrated catalogue raisonné of Hogarth's paintings, based on more than two decades of research. Updates and upgrades the older catalogues.








CATALOGUES OF HOGARTH'S ENGRAVINGS




Ronald Paulson, Hogarth's Graphic Works, 2 vols., New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1965. Second edition: 1970. Third, Revised Edition in one volume, London: The Print Room, 1989.

First serious and complete catalogue raisonné of Hogarth's engravings, which systematises, corrects, and augments the lists of John Bowyer Nichols (1833) and Austin Dobson (1907). The extensive commentary gives circumstances of the various states of the prints, their publication and contemporary references, and informs the modern reader of their meaning. All prints are reproduced from the originals.


* * *



Joseph Burke / Colin Caldwell, Hogarth: The Complete Engravings, London: Thames and Hudson, 1968. Repr. London: Alpine Fine Arts Collection (U.K.) Ltd., n.d.

Contains a good introduction to Hogarth in general and brief commentaries on the engravings with, however, captionless reproductions of all prints. The text on the prints is an abridged catalogue based on Paulson's Hogarth's Graphic Works. There are also French and German translations of this catalogue.


* * *



Sean Shesgreen (ed.), Engravings by Hogarth: 101 Prints, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1973.

Selection of all the major engravings with an introduction on Hogarth's "world" plus commentaries of variable length that stress social class in the prints. Includes, however, among the many good large-size reproductions after the Hogarth originals, a few after plates re-tooled in the nineteenth century.


* * *



Berthold Hinz / Hartmut Krug, et al., William Hogarth 1697-1764: Das vollständige graphische Werk, 2nd edn, Gießen: Anabas-Verlag Günter Kämpf KG, 1986.

German catalogue containing detailed commentaries on the engravings, often paraphrasing the English comments by Ronald Paulson. However, includes some new research.


* * *



William Hogarth: Der Kupferstich als moralische Schaubühne, exh. cat., Wilhelm-Busch-Museum Hannover, Deutsches Museum für Karikatur und kritische Grafik, 15 March - 17 May 1987, Stuttgart: Verlag Gerd Hatje, 1987.

German 248-page catalogue based on the former Lichtenberg collection of Hogarth's engravings, now kept at the Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek, Göttingen, and on Lichtenberg's commentaries on Hogarth. Does not include, however, the minor prints.


* * *



David Bindman, Hogarth and His Times: Serious Comedy, exh. cat., The British Museum, London, 26 September 1997-4 January 1998.

Catalogue of an exhibition of Hogarth's engravings, published to mark the tercentenary of Hogarth's birth. It looks at the varied reactions to Hogarth's prints and the different identities imposed upon the artist over the centuries: witty satirist; stern moralist; libertine; aggressive self-promoter; detached observer; and man of the people. Includes many illustrations also of other contemporary satirical prints. The exhibition was also shown in the USA. See the review by Thomas W. Rieger, The Tübingen Review of English Studies, 2 February 2000.


* * *



William Hogarth: Conciencia y crítica de una época: 1697-1764, exh. cat., ed. José Manuel Matilla and José Miguel Medrano, Centro Cultural del Conde Duque, Calcografía Nacional, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Calcografía Nacional, Ayuntamiento de Madrid, Cuarta Tenencia de Alcaldía, Concejalía de Cultura, Educación, Juventud y Deportes, January-March 1998.

Detailed 350-page catalogue of Hogarth's engravings in Spanish, also including essays on Hogarth's "edifying comic histories" and his aesthetics. For some Spanish conference papers on the occasion of this exhibition, see "La pintura de Hogarth proporciona un testimonio excepcional de la sociedad británica del siglo XVIII", asegura Pilar de Miguel; Ramón Maruri diserta mañana sobre la obra de Hogarth y la realidad social de su tiempo, en el ciclo de conferencias de la exposición sobre el pintor inglés and Tomás Mantecón, "La obra de Hogarth es fruto de su capacidad de observación y de que en aquella época Londres era el mejor laboratorio social del continente".







HOGARTH'S DRAWINGS




A. P[aul] Oppé (ed.), The Drawings of William Hogarth, London: Phaidon Press, 1948.

To date, the best critical appreciation of Hogarth's drawings. Contains, in the introduction, a good account of Hogarth's artistic character, which is bound up with his private character.


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Michael Ayrton (ed.), Hogarth's Drawings, Notes on the Plates by Bernard Denvir, London: Avalon Press, 1948.

Reproduces 80 drawings, some of which are obviously not by Hogarth.







ART HISTORICAL CONTEXTS AND INTERCONNECTIONS




Frederick Antal, Hogarth and his Place in European Art, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1962.

Pioneering, perceptive and well illustrated, critical study, posthumously published, which places Hogarth for the first time firmly in the mainstream of European art. Discusses, from a sociological, and liberal Marxist, point of view, "Hogarth's relationship both with English and foreign art, past and contemporary, his premises and parallels, his similarities and even his borrowings".


* * *



David Kunzle, History of the Comic Strip, Volume I: The Early Comic Strip: Narrative Strips and Picture Stories in the European Broadsheet from c.1450 to 1825, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1973.

Collects, and comments upon, a vast amount of traditional picture stories taken from different countries and periods, including Hogarth's narrative series.


* * *



Werner Busch, Nachahmung als bürgerliches Kunstprinzip: Ikonographische Zitate bei Hogarth und in seiner Nachfolge, Hildesheim and New York: Georg Olms, 1977.

Though not widely known among Anglo-American scholars, this is an illuminating German study on Hogarth's borrowings in the context of eighteenth-century theories of art. Contains many new insights.







CRITICAL EDITIONS OF HOGARTH'S WRITINGS




Joseph Burke (ed.), William Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, with the Rejected Passages from the Manuscript Drafts and Autobiographical Notes, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955.

Scholarly edition of the Analysis of Beauty (1753). Also incorporates important Hogarth manuscripts: the "Autobiographical Notes" of c. 1763 and unpublished parts of the Analysis text.


* * *



Ronald Paulson (ed.), William Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997.

A new edition of the complete text of the Analysis of Beauty with Paulson's notes and introduction, supplying a good deal more annotation than Burke. Has also an appendix with illuminating manuscript passages that Hogarth omitted from the final version. Does not, however, include Hogarth's "Autobiographical Notes". The introduction places the Analysis of Beauty in the British empiricist and aesthetic traditions of Locke, Addison and Shaftesbury and concludes with a useful account of the reception of Hogarth's book.



* * *



For digital versions of The Analysis of Beauty, see the Tristram Shandy Web and FONTES 52 (University of Heidelberg). See further the first phase of Professor William Vaughan's project, 18th Century Writings on Art: A Virtual Library. It should be noted that there are also recent Russian, French, German, Spanish and Italian translations of the Analysis of Beauty. The German edition includes an interesting postscript by Peter Bexte. See also G. Sertoli's review of the modern Italian translation by C. Maria Laudando. There are also critical Italian studies of Hogarth's L' Analisi della Bellezza by Filiberto Menna (Salerno, 1988) and Stefania Consonni (Genoa, 2003).



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Michael Kitson, "Hogarth's 'Apology for Painters'", Walpole Society, 41 (1966-1968), Oxford, 1968, 46-111.

Modern critical and well-annotated edition of an important Hogarth manuscript of c. 1761 - here for the first time transribed in Hogarth's original wording. Includes an excellent introduction. For some corrections of, and additions to, Kitson's reading of Hogarth's handwritten notes, see Bernd W. Krysmanski, Hogarth's 'Enthusiasm Delineated': Nachahmung als Kritik am Kennertum, Hildesheim, Zurich, New York: Georg Olms, 1996, I: 227-228n570, 288n736, 310n766, 741n1848.







HOGARTH AND THE LITERATURE OF HIS TIME




R[obert] E[theridge] Moore, Hogarth's Literary Relationships, Minnesota: The University of Minnesota Press; London: Cumberlege, 1948. Reprint: New York: Octagon Books, 1969.

Key study showing the links between literary and visual satire in Hogarth's work. The book is devoted largely to Hogarth's influence upon Tobias Smollett and particularly Henry Fielding.


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Peter Jan de Voogd, Henry Fielding and William Hogarth: The Correspondences of the Arts, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1981 [Costerus, new ser., 30].

A study of the parallel careers of Hogarth and Fielding, which analyses the extent to which the work of each influenced the other. See Introduction.


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Murray Roston, Changing Perspectives in Literature and the Visual Arts, 1650-1820, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Includes, pp. 170-89, a section that deals with Hogarth and Fielding.


* * *



C. Maria Laudando, Parody, Paratext, Palimpsest: A Study of Intertextual Strategies in the Writings of Laurence Sterne, PhD thesis, Istituto Universitario Orientale, Naples, 1995.

Interesting study on Laurence Sterne's writings, overlooked by most scholars. Chapter Four, "From Stage to Page to Frame: A Binocular Reading of Hogarth's and Sterne's Narrative Artifacts", pp. 193-282, is devoted to Sterne and Hogarth.


* * *



Jerry C. Beasley, Tobias Smollett, Novelist, Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1998.

Views Tobias Smollett's novels as exercises of a visual imagination and seeks to demonstrate intersections between the graphic and verbal arts. Like Hogarth, Smollett was both chronicler and interpreter of what he saw.


* * *



Ronald Paulson, The Life of Henry Fielding: A Critical Biography, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2000.

New critical biography demonstrating how Fielding's life and writings evolved according to his experiments with different professions (playwright and theater-manager; journalist; barrister; magistrate). The study also situates Fielding's writings within contemporary political, aesthetic, and philosophical controversies. Chapter 2 ("Playwright, 1730-1737") includes, pp. 78-92, a subchapter on Hogarth. The English artist is a recurrent point of reference in most other chapters.







MISCELLANEOUS STUDIES, MONOGRAPHS AND EXHIBITION CATALOGUES ON WILLIAM HOGARTH




David Bindman, Hogarth, London: Thames and Hudson, 1981.

Good brief and well illustrated study of Hogarth the artist.


* * *



John Brewer, The Pleasures of the Imagination: English Culture in the Eighteenth Century, New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1997.

Focusing on Johnson and Boswell, Reynolds, Garrick, Handel and some lesser-known figures of the eighteenth century, this 721-page study sets out to show how literature, painting, music, and the theatre related to an increased public interest; how artists used, or were used by, publishers, plagiarists, impresarios, managers, art dealers and connoisseurs; and how contemporary ideas on taste combined with patriotic fervour and shrewdly managed commerce to create a vibrant, dynamic culture. Several sections deal with Hogarth. See the review by Michael Dirda in the Washington Post, 9 November 1997.


* * *



Werner Busch, Das sentimentalische Bild: Die Krise der Kunst im 18. Jahrhundert und die Geburt der Moderne, Munich: C. H. Beck, 1993.

Through a discussion of many examples of history, genre and landscape painting, as well as work of portraiture and caricature, this important German study shows that eighteenth-century artists' views of the world were no longer bound to traditional art theories, but were equally individual, sentimental and subjective. Chapter two, on "Genre", deals with Hogarth's "modern moral subjects" and offers a new and a surprising interpretation of Beer Street and Gin Lane.


* * *



Vincent Carretta, 'The Snarling Muse': Verbal and Visual Political Satire from Pope to Churchill, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.

Survey of the great period of English verbal and pictorial satire from 1714 to 1764, including an extended discussion of Hogarth's Emblematical Print of the South Sea Scheme (1721) and its sources. The author further sees Hogarth's political prints from the 1740s on as representative of the development of caricature.


* * *



Vincent Carretta, George III and the Satirists from Hogarth to Byron, Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 1990.

Discusses the part played by Hogarth's satires during the 1760s on the opponents of George III and the contemporary debate over the role of the monarchy in the British constitution. Also makes reference to the possible influences Hogarth's images had on later satirists, including William Blake and James Gillray.


* * *



Robert L. S. Cowley, Marriage A-la-Mode: a re-view of Hogarth's narrative art, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1983. American edition as Hogarth's 'Marriage A-la-Mode', Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983.

Doubtless one of the best monographs on Hogarth, and, to date, the most comprehensive study of the content and formal structure of the six Marriage A-la-Mode pictures.


* * *



David Dabydeen, Hogarth's Blacks: Images of Blacks in Eighteenth Century English Art, Mundelstrup [Denmark] and Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey: Dangaroo Press, 1985. Further editions: Manchester, 1987, and Athens, Georgia, 1987.

Study on Hogarth's representations of black people: original; illuminating; well-researched; and well-written.


* * *



David Dabydeen, Hogarth, Walpole and Commercial Britain, London: Hansib Publishing Limited, 1987.

Political reading of Hogarth's South Sea Scheme, A Harlot's Progress and A Rake's Progress as satires on Walpole. Additionally traces South Sea motifs in other early works by Hogarth.


* * *



Javier Docampo / Francisco Calvo Serraller, William Hogarth en la Biblioteca Nacional, exh. cat., Bilboko Arte Eder Museoa [Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao], Bilbao, 1997.

149-page Spanish catalogue of Hogarth's engravings. Includes, apart from the extensively annotated "Catálogo", an introduction by Javier Docampo ("Introducción: William Hogarth regresa a Bilbao", pp. 13-24) and an essay by Francisco Calvo Serraller ("Hogarth: Pionero de la modernización del arte europeo", pp. 25-37). For another Spanish exhibition of Hogarth's prints at the Biblioteca National, curated by Javier Docampo, see British Satirical Prints: Hogarth and His Age.


* * *



Johannes Dobai, Die Kunstliteratur des Klassizismus und der Romantik in England, 4 vols., Bern: Benteli, 1974-1984.

Though often disregarded by Anglo-American scholars, these four very large volumes include, to date, the best and most comprehensive compilation of, and comment on, aesthetic theories and literature on art in eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Britain. Contains, in volume II, an extensive chapter on Hogarth's writings and detailed bibliographical references.


* * *



Jürgen Döring, Eine Kunstgeschichte der frühen englischen Karikatur, Hildesheim: Gerstenberg Verlag, 1991 [Schriften zur Karikatur und kritischen Grafik, ed. Herwig Guratzsch, Wilhelm-Busch-Museum Hannover, vol. 1].

Thorough and well-illustrated study placing Hogarth and his prints in the context of the life and work of other pictorial satirists of the period. Includes excellent sections on caricature as an art form and on the print trade in London.


* * *



Judy Egerton, Hogarth's 'Marriage A-la-Mode', exh. cat., The National Gallery, London, 15 October 1997-18 January 1998. New edition: Yale University Press, 2011.

Well-illustrated scene-by-scene account of the Marriage A-la-Mode paintings "whose colour is continually inventive and subtle". Describes the "innumerable details which contribute to the story's meaning" and which "are to be found not only in the faces, gestures and manners of the characters (...), but also in the furniture, objets d'art, and above all the 'pictures within the pictures' ". See also the review by Richard Dorment.


* * *



Elizabeth Einberg (introduction and catalogue), Manners & Morals, Hogarth and British Painting 1700-1760, exh. cat., The Tate Gallery, London, 1987.

Charts the emergence of a British School of painting from its exclusive and foreign-dominated status in the reign of Queen Anne, up to the establishment of a true native school by the end of the reign of George II. Hogarth is shown in the context of his fore-runners, rivals and contemporaries such as Kneller, Thornhill, Highmore and Hayman, as well as of the "new men" like Ramsay, Gainsborough, Romney and Reynolds.


* * *



Elizabeth Einberg, Hogarth the Painter, exh. cat., Tate Gallery, London, 4 March-8 June 1997.

56-page catalogue accompanying the tercentenary of Hogarth's birth, offering a survey of 31 of his paintings from the late 1720s to 1759.


* * *



Elizabeth Einberg / Judy Egerton, The Age of Hogarth: British Painters Born 1675-1709, London, 1988 [The Tate Gallery Collections, II].

Includes thorough descriptions by Elizabeth Einberg of all of Hogarth's pictures in the Tate Gallery, London.


* * *



Lawrence Gowing, William Hogarth, exh. cat., The Tate Gallery, London, 2 December 1971-16 February 1972.

Excellent survey of Hogarth's art, covering the full range of his paintings, drawings and engravings. Catalogue and commentary by Lawrence Gowing; introductory essay on Hogarth's life by Ronald Paulson.


* * *



Rhian Harris / Robin Simon (eds.), Enlightened Self-interest: The Foundling Hospital and Hogarth, An exhibition at the Thomas Coram Foundation for Children, 40 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AZ, 5-29 November 1997.

Well-illustrated 48-page exhibition catalogue examining "William Hogarth's relationship with the Foundling Hospital in terms of what Edmund Burke called 'Enlightened Self Interest': both his altruism and artistic professionalism". Includes essays by Brian Allen, Roy Porter, Jacqueline Riding, Martin Postle, Steven Parissien, Elizabeth Einberg and Mike Bowles.


* * *



Fiona Haslam, From Hogarth to Rowlandson: Medicine in Art in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1996.

Comprehensive study, placing "the art of medicine" of the eighteenth century in its social, medical, historical and political context. Considers in detail medical images in Hogarth's satires. See the review by J. H. Baron in the British Medical Journal, 314 (22 March 1997), 911.


* * *



Berthold Hinz, William Hogarth, 'Beer Street' and 'Gin Lane': Lehrtafeln zur britischen Volkswohlfahrt, Frankfurt/M.: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1984.

Handy 74-page monograph on Beer Street and Gin Lane. Part of the German "kunststück" series.


* * *



Derek Jarrett, The Ingenious Mr. Hogarth, London: Michael Joseph, 1976.

Popular account of Hogarth's career in its historical and political context, based on Hogarth's unpublished manuscript, the "Autobiographical Notes", and Ronald Paulson's Hogarth: His Life, Art, and Times. Occasionally offers new information and correctives to Paulson's scholarship.


* * *



Ulrich Joost / Gerd Unverfehrt (eds.), Hogarth und die Nachwelt: Von Lichtenberg bis Hrdlicka, exh. cat., Kunstsammlung der Universität Göttingen im Auditorium, 13 November-18 December 1988.

108-page catalogue focusing on the reception of Hogarth's work in eighteenth-century England, Germany and Russia, and on later artists influenced by Hogarth. Includes worthwhile papers by Jürgen Döring ("Kritik an Hogarth im 18. Jahrhundert", pp. 23-31) and Marina Peltzer ("Hogarth in Rußland", pp. 32-37).


* * *



Jack Lindsay, Hogarth: His Art and His World, London: Hart-Davis & MacGibbon, 1977; New York: Taplinger Publishing Co., 1979.

Good 277-page study on Hogarth, which intends to bring out what the author feels "to be the significance of the 'Analysis' in relation to Hogarth's own work, the art of his world, and art in general".


* * *



Neil McWilliam, Hogarth, London: Studio Editions, 1993. Reprint: London: Studio Editions, 1994.

General introduction to the work of Hogarth, focusing on the paintings and organised thematically rather than as a biographical narrative. Includes good colour reproductions of the paintings.


* * *



'Marriage A-la-Mode' - Hogarth und seine deutschen Bewunderer, exh. cat., ed. Martina Dillmann and Claude Keisch, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Nationalgalerie - Altes Museum, Berlin, 18 December 1998 - 28 February 1999, Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie Frankfurt am Main, 25 March - 20 June 1999.

Well illustrated 160-page catalogue including, apart from a German translation of Judy Egerton's account of Hogarth's Marriage A-la-Mode, contributions by several German scholars, among them articles by Werner Busch and Karl Arndt.


* * *



Charles Mitchell (ed.), Hogarth's Peregrination, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952.

54-page publication on Hogarth's tour through Kent, including many particulars about the events and the men who accompanied him.


* * *



Joachim Möller (ed.), Hogarth in Context: Ten Essays and a Bibliography, Marburg: Jonas, 1996.

Presents American, British and German essays by prominent Hogarthian scholars who hold different literary and art historical perspectives, thereby demonstrating that Hogarth's work is not solely the province of the visual arts, but is at a borderline between "sister arts". Contains contributions by Werner Busch, Ronald Paulson, Stephen C. Behrendt, Robert L. S. Cowley, Mary Klinger Lindberg, Vincent Carretta, Jeanne K. Welcher, Walter T. Rix, Barry Wind and Joachim Möller. The volume includes a remarkable bibliography on Hogarth.


* * *



Frédéric Ogée (ed.), The Dumb show: Image and society in the works of William Hogarth, Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1997 [Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 357]

Extended English edition of some papers delivered on the occasion of a French conference on Hogarth in 1992. The contributions (by Michel Baridon, David Bindman, Jacques Carré, Pierre Georgel, Bernd Krysmanski, Marie-Madeleine Martinet, Frédéric Ogée, Roy Porter and Peter Wagner) deal with Hogarth's eccentricity; his ambiguous position as an artist; and the ambivalence of his pictures, which "result from his boldest artistic originality: his adoption of a polycentric stage, on which the 'dumb show' exhibited by his 'players' offers concomitant areas of meaning".


* * *



Frédéric Ogée / Hans-Peter Wagner / Peter Hanns Reill (eds.), William Hogarth: Theater and the Theater of Life, An exhibition drawn from the collection of Gerald and Suzanne Labiner, 16 March to 6 April 1997, Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts, UCLA at the Armand Hammer Museum of Art and Cultural Center, Los Angeles, 1997.

Brief catalogue, putting together a selected number of prints by Hogarth that show the influence of the theatre on his art.


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Ronald Paulson, The Art of Hogarth, London: Phaidon; New York: Praeger, 1975.

A thoroughly illustrated volume and an attempt to deal primarily with the paintings, being "a general critical introduction to the enjoyment of Hogarth's art" emphasising the "difference in the reading of a Hogarth print and the seeing of a Hogarth painting".


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Ronald Paulson, Popular and Polite Art in the Age of Hogarth and Fielding, Notre Dame, Indiana and London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1979 [Ward-Phillips Lectures in English Language and Literature, 10]

Links modes of expression to social structures, circumstances and settings from c. 1730 to 1750. Refers to alphabet books, decks of cards, signboards, engravings and novels.


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Ronald Paulson, The Beautiful, Novel, and Strange: Aesthetics and Heterodoxy, Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Includes a revisionist interpretation of Hogarth's aesthetics, building on his deist-Freemason connections (first explored in Hogarth, Volume 2 and 3).


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Ronald Paulson, Don Quixote in England: The Aesthetics of Laughter, Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

This study of the reception of Cervantes' comic novel in England includes a discussion of Hogarth's Don Quixote illustrations. For more details, see the reviews by Laura J. Gorfkle, Cervantes: Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America, 19, no. 1 (1999), 145-49; Peter M. Briggs, Bryn Mawr Review of Comparative Literature, 1, no. 1 (Summer 1999).


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Iain Pears, The Discovery of Painting: The Growth of Interest in the Arts in England, 1680-1768, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1988.

Though there is little on Hogarth in this book, it deals with the contemporary art market; the London artists' societies; the tastes, habits, and patronage of the eighteenth-century aristocracy and bourgeoisie. Includes, however, some misdatings.


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Marcia Pointon, Hanging the Head: Portraiture and Social Formation in Eighteenth-Century England, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1993; paperback edition: 1997.

Hogarth is a recurrent point of reference in this book, which includes, for instance, interesting readings of some of Hogarth's conversation pieces.


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Peter Quennell, Hogarth's Progress, London: Collins; New York: Viking Press, 1955. Reprinted 1977.

According to his own statement in the preface, the author has tried "to draw a portrait of the artist, and to relate an account of his works to the description of the period in which he lived".


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Michael Rosenthal, Hogarth, London: Jupiter Books, 1980.

Provides a brief survey of what we can discover about Hogarth's art by looking closely at his pictures. The book is divided into two parts: a 22-page introduction and 86 annotated illustrations of different quality.


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Christina Scull, The Soane Hogarths, Sir John Soane's Museum, London, 1991.

This 48-page booklet tells the story of the Rake's Progress and Election paintings in the Soane's Museum and discusses their narrative and content.


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Sean Shesgreen, Hogarth and the Times-of-the-Day Tradition, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1983.

A major study demonstrating how Hogarth transforms an important graphic theme, the points du jour of sixteenth and seventeenth-century Dutch and Flemish art, in his own Morning, Noon, Evening, and Night. Deals also with the Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn.


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Robin Simon / Christopher Woodward (eds.), 'A Rake's Progress': From Hogarth to Hockney, exh. cat., Sir John Soane's Museum, London, 26 March-31 August 1997.

Well illustrated 40-page catalogue of an exhibition focusing on the precedents and influence of Hogarth's Rake's Progress series. It particularly compares the eight Rake pictures with "the later works of art by artists such as Rex Whistler, David Low, Jörg Immendorff, Peter Howson and David Hockney who have all been inspired by Hogarth's radical approach to art and life". Includes brief essays by David Bindman, Christopher Woodward, Frances Rustin, Richard Pound, Natalie E. Smith and Verena Bertmaring.


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David H. Solkin, Painting for Money: The Visual Arts and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century England, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1993.

In focusing on portraiture; the English conversation piece; and an examination of the spaces of public life, this study concentrates "on those artists and writers about art who embraced the realities of a burgeoning market economy, instead of bemoaning its arrival as a sign of social and spiritual degeneration", attempting to show "how a visual culture came to be shaped by and for the purposes of commerce".


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Andrew Stevens, Hogarth and the Shows of London, exh. cat., Elvehjem Museum of Art, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1996.

Explores the close relationship between Hogarth's prints and the various shows that he and his audiences would have had access to in London. On performances of The Beggar's Opera and a lecture accompanying the exhibition when shown at The Douglas F. Cooley Memorial Art Gallery at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, 7 November 1996-1 January 1997, see also "18th-Century Hogarth Theater Prints Come to Reed", Reed College Press Release, 8 October 1996.


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William Vaughan, British Painting: The Golden Age from Hogarth to Turner, London: Thames and Hudson, 1999.

Survey of the 120 years of British painting that divide Hogarth's early works around 1730 from the death of Turner in 1851. The four parts of this book are devoted to: "Portraiture and Society" (pp. 24-97, including a chapter on Hogarth); "High Art and High Life" (pp. 98-149); "Low Art and Low Life" (pp. 150-81); and "The Nature of Landscape" (pp. 182-249). There is also an introduction, "Painting and the Hanoverian Era" (pp. 6-23).


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Peter Wagner, Reading Iconotexts: From Swift to the French Revolution, London: Reaktion Books, 1995.

Provocative study presenting a modern intertextual, post-structuralist view of Hogarth's art, influenced by French theory. Promotes new strategies for decoding the ambiguous sign systems that create "iconotexts", i.e. constructs mingling images and words and "appealing to the observer to activate his/her knowledge of both media". See also the reviews by Martin Heusser, Interactions - The Bulletin of I.A.W.I.S., No. 16 (April 1996); Leonard Rifas, TCJ [The Comics Journal], No. 188 (July 1996).


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Hans-Peter Wagner, William Hogarth, 1697-1764: Das graphische Werk, exh. cat., Saarland Museum, Saarbrücken, 5 March-30 April 1998.

67-page catalogue of a German exhibition on Hogarth, offering a good survey of the main prints. The introduction discusses traditional Hogarth scholarship from a poststructuralist's point of view.


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Mary Webster, Hogarth, London: Studio Vista, 1979.

Solid and well-illustrated account of Hogarth's life and work, focusing on the paintings.


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William Hogarth: Dipinti, disegni, incisioni, exh. cat., Fondazione Giorgio Cini, San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, 26 August-12 November 1989, Vicenza: Neri Pozza Editore, 1989.

Catalogue of an important Italian exhibition on Hogarth organised by Mary Webster. Includes a biographical essay, many illustrations and detailed Italian commentaries on Hogarth's works.


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William Hogarth: Nationalism, Mass Media and the Artist, exh. cat., The Vancouver Art Gallery, November 29, 1980-January 4, 1981.

58-page catalogue of a selection of Hogarth's engravings, including lesser known works on the subjects of taste, connoisseurship, nationalism in art and the importation of foreign artistic models. Contains two articles, the main one by Ilaria Bignamini.


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Barry Wind, Wit and Vitriol: Hogarth and the Politics of His Time, exh. cat., UWM Museum, Art History Museum, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, 2 October-5 November 1988.

Interpretation of Hogarth's main graphic works in the context of political themes of the time. The short introduction stresses Hogarth's politics.


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Shaun Wourm, "Ambiguities and Paradoxes in Hogarth's Industry & Idleness, MA thesis, Université Lumière Lyon II, 1997.

Looks "at the two apprentices' story by studying the different graphic references and codes that the artist has slyly inserted within the plates". See the online version of this MA dissertation: William Hogarth's Realm: http://hogarth.chez-alice.fr/memoire/dissertation04.htm







SOME OLDER SOURCES STILL USEFUL TO THE MODERN SCHOLAR




John Trusler, Hogarth Moralized: A Complete Edition of All the Most Capital and Admired Works of William Hogarth, Accompanied by Concise and Comprehensive Explanations of Their Moral Tendency by the late Rev. Dr. Trusler, To Which are Added, An Introductory Essay, and Many Original and Selected Notes, by John Major, A New Edition, Revised, Corrected, and Somewhat Enlarged (London: Printed for Henry Washbourne, 1841).

Best, though incomplete, critical nineteenth-century edition of Trusler's book which was first published in 1768. For another nineteenth-century edition, see The Works of William Hogarth, In a Series of Engravings, With Descriptions, and a Comment on their Moral Tendency, by the Rev. John Trusler, To which are added, Anecdotes of the Author and his Works, by J. Hogarth and J. Nichols, 2 vols. (London: Jones and Co., 1833).


* * *



John Nichols, Biographical Anecdotes of William Hogarth; With a Catalogue of his Works Chronologically Arranged; And Occasional Remarks, 3rd edn (London: Printed by and for John Nichols, 1785).

First comprehensive life of Hogarth, based on contemporary memories, manuscripts, and collections. Includes critical and somewhat derogatory comments on Hogarth by George Steevens, theatrical anecdotes by Isaac Reed, an extensively annotated "Catalogue of Hogarth's Prints" and a "General Index to Hogarth's Plates."


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Samuel Ireland, Graphic Illustrations of Hogarth, From Pictures, Drawings, and Scarce Prints in the Possession of Samuel Ireland, London: R. Faulder and J. Egerton, 1794.

Includes some interesting anecdotes on Hogarth, his work, his time, and his contemporaries plus illustrations of, and notes on, Hogarth's earliest and little known works. However, these are not always reliable, as among the "scarce prints" are some obvious forgeries. A second volume of Ireland's Graphic Illustrations was published in 1799.


* * *



John Nichols / George Steevens, et al., The Genuine Works of William Hogarth, illustrated with Biographical Anecdotes, a Chronological Catalogue and Commentary, 2 vols., London: Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1808-1810.

Definitive revision of Nichols's eighteenth-century editions of his Anecdotes of William Hogarth (1781, 1782 and 1785), fairly summarising all that was known about Hogarth's life and art up to that time. Includes many quotations from contemporary sources and a detailed Index. A third volume of the Genuine Works with additional material appeared in 1817.


* * *



Thomas Clerk, The Works of William Hogarth (Including the 'Analysis of Beauty';) Elucidated by Descriptions, Critical, Moral and Historical, London: R. Scholey, 1812.

Includes "Some Account of William Hogarth" by Thomas Hartwell Horne, a discussion of the artist's major works, and, in volume 2, a reprint of the text of The Analysis of Beauty.


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J[ohn] B[owyer] Nichols, Anecdotes of William Hogarth, Written by Himself: With Essays on his Life and Genius, and Criticisms of his Works, Selected from Walpole, Gilpin, J. Ireland, Lamb, Phillips, and Others, To which are added a Catalogue of his Prints, Account of their Variations, and Principal Copies, List of Paintings, Drawings, &c., London: J. B. Nichols and Son, 1833. Facsimile reprint with a short introduction by R[onald] W. Lightbown: London: Cornmarket Press, 1970.

This book contains, apart from the many quotations from John Ireland and others, the then most complete catalogues of Hogarth's work, particularly, a "Chronological Catalogue of Hogarth's Prints; with an Account of the Variations and Principal Copies".


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John Ireland, Hogarth Illustrated, 2 vols., London: J. & J. Boydell, 1791. Second edition: 1793. Third edition: 1812.

John Ireland, A Supplement to Hogarth Illustrated, Compiled from his Original Manuscripts, in the Possession of John Ireland, London: For the Author, Mr. Nicol, and Messrs. Boydell, 1798 [Hogarth Illustrated, III].

There are also late nineteenth-century editions of these three volumes. They contain accurate descriptions of Hogarth's prints, which are still useful to the modern reader. The supplement volume includes Ireland's transcription of Hogarth's manuscript notes, which disclose a great deal about the artist's life and thought.


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G[eorg] C[hristoph] Lichtenberg's ausführliche Erklärung der Hogarthischen Kupferstiche, mit verkleinerten aber vollständigen Copien derselben von E[rnst Ludwig] Riepenhausen, 14 vols., Göttingen, 1794-1835; new edition, 1850-54.

Certainly the most brilliant of the early commentators. Considers almost every detail in Hogarth's engravings. Distinguishes between a prosaic and a poetic method of interpretation. Though often wandering from the subject, the verbal and semantic ambiguity in the commentaries corresponds well to the ambiguity in Hogarth's prints. The modern English translations, which appeared in 1966 and 1970, are not as good as the German original. From the 14 Lieferungen only the first four are by Lichtenberg himself. For modern German editions of Lichtenberg's commentaries, see Wolfgang Promies (ed.), Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Schriften und Briefe, III: Aufsätze, Entwürfe, Gedichte, Erklärung der Hogarthischen Kupferstiche, Munich: Carl Hanser, 1972, 657-1060; Wolfgang Promies (ed.), Lichtenbergs Hogarth: Die Kalender-Erklärungen von Georg Christoph Lichtenberg mit den Nachstichen von Ernst Ludwig Riepenhausen zu den Kupferstich-Tafeln von William Hogarth, Munich, Vienna: Carl Hanser, 1999. For a modern critical discussion of Lichtenberg's Hogarth commentaries, see Hans-Georg von Arburg, Kunst-Wissenschaft um 1800: Studien zu Georg Christoph Lichtenbergs Hogarth-Kommentaren, Göttingen: Wallstein-Verlag, 1998. For a feminist study on Hogarth and Lichtenberg, see, in addition, Jutta Pivecka, Malen, Schreiben, Drucken: Zum Verhältnis von Autorschaft und Öffentlichkeit im 18. Jahrhundert aus Sicht der Geschlechterforschung, Studien zu William Hogarth (1697-1764) und Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1742-1799), Königstein/Taunus: Ulrike Helmer Verlag, 1999.


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The Works of William Hogarth, from the Original Plates restored by James Heath, Esq. R.A.; With the Addition of many Subjects not before collected (London: Printed for Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy by J. Nichols and Son, 1822).

Online version of The Works of William Hogarth, including all illustrations and the accompanying commentaries by John Nichols. Part of a Hogarth project by Clifford Armion, Professor of English at the Université de Lyon.


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Franz Kottenkamp, William Hogarth's Zeichnungen (Stuttgart: Literatur-Comptoir, 1840).

Detailed German commentaries on the prints, borrowed from Lichtenberg's Ausführliche Erklärung der Hogarthischen Kupferstiche and the early English commentators. Contains, however, some errors produced by the author himself.


* * *



George Augustus Sala, William Hogarth: Painter, Engraver and Philosopher, Essays on the Man, the Work, and the Time (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1866).

Collects the rather colourful articles which were first published in The Cornhill Magazine, I and II (February-October 1860). Hogarth is seen as an Englishman of a "healthful, sanguine constitution, and ... great powers of will and self-reliance backboning an unflagging industry." However, according to one critic, "these are sentimental, gossipy meanderings that confuse and do not inform, and they cannot possibly be regarded as serious, intelligent criticism, or even as well written biography."


* * *



Frederic George Stephens / Edward Hawkins, Catalogue of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum, Division I: Political and Personal Satires, I-IV, London: British Museum, Printed by Order of the Trustees, 1870, 1873, 1877 and 1883.

Though not so well known as they deserve to be, these volumes contain, to date, the most important and thorough descriptions of Hogarth's satirical prints, written by the art critic and former Pre-Raphaelite painter, Frederic George Stephens (1828-1907). The detailed commentaries offer the reader further background information on Hogarth and his motifs, the vast amount of other related contemporary satirical prints and the literature of the time.







SOME EARLIER TWENTIETH-CENTURY PUBLICATIONS STILL OF USE




Austin Dobson, William Hogarth (London: William Heinemann, 1907). There are also late-nineteenth-century editions of this book, which was first published in 1879.

This volume is one of the series of the Illustrated Biographies of the Great Artists. It contains an annotated "Bibliography of the Principal Books, Pamphlets, etc., Relating to Hogarth and his Works", which is still very useful, and uncritical lists of Hogarth's paintings and prints.


* * *



G. Baldwin Brown, William Hogarth (London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., 1905).

217-page study on Hogarth's life and art from a sociocultural and art historical point of view, stressing his technical skill as a painter, and his originality.


* * *



Henry B[enjamin] Wheatley, Hogarth's London: Pictures of the Manners of the Eighteenth Century (London: Constable and Company Ltd., 1909).

Easily readable volume not only on eighteenth-century London, but also on Hogarth's life, works and contemporaries, based on the then most important sources on Hogarth, which are often quoted in the text.


* * *



William T[homas] Whitley, Artists and their Friends in England 1700-1799, 2 vols. (New York and London: Benjamin Blom, 1928). Reissued 1968.

Notable study which exploits George Vertue's manuscript notebooks and throws new light on the English artists of the eighteenth century and their contemporaries. See also volume 2.


* * *



Marjorie Bowen, William Hogarth: The Cockney's Mirror (London: Methuen, 1936).

This study on Hogarth "is divided into four parts; the first part gives the background of William Hogarth's life and pictures, the second recounts his career and character and his attitude to his own genius, the third gives the stories, actors (real or imagined) of the principal pictures and prints, and the fourth describes and analyses the work from the point of view of aesthetics."







ONLINE ARTICLES AND EXHIBITIONS ON WILLIAM HOGARTH




Click on the area you are interested in:











ONLINE BIOGRAPHIES OF WILLIAM HOGARTH:




Dale Keiger, "A Scholar's Progress", Johns Hopkins Magazine, November 2000.
Article paying tribute to Ronald Paulson's pioneering work on Hogarth. At the same time an easily readable introduction to Hogarth's life and art.


* * *



Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: Hogarth, William.

Comprehensive biography written by David Bindman. Contents: Early career: the 1720s -- Beginnings as a painter -- The first 'modern moral subjects': A Harlot's Progress and A Rake's Progress -- After the Rake: new challenges -- Portrait painting: an English grand manner -- 'Comic history painting' and Marriage a-la-mode -- Contrasting directions: history painting and the lower Class of People -- The state of the nation: The March to Finchley and the Election series -- Reflecting on art: The Analysis of Beauty -- Hogarth under attack: Sandby and Reynolds -- The artist embattled: the Sigismunda affair -- The wrong politics: Hogarth on the defensive -- A feeling mind: retaliation, despair, and death -- Posthumous reputation and afterlife -- Sources.


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A Biography of William Hogarth by Austin Dobson.

Online version of Austin Dobson's article on Hogarth in the 1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, with additional hyperlinks.


* * *



William Hogarth.

Susan Elizabeth Benenson's article on Hogarth for the 1985 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica.


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Philadelphia Museum of Art: William Hogarth.

Biographical essay written by Richard Dorment, from British Painting in the Philadelphia Museum of Art: From the Seventeenth through the Nineteenth Century (1986), 153-56.


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John Nichols, "Biographical essay on the genius and works of Hogarth (Part I)", ed. Clifford Armion, La Clé des Langues (Lyon).

First part of the online version of a biographical essay first published in The Works of William Hogarth, from the Original Plates restored by James Heath (London, 1822). Part of an excellent Hogarth project by Clifford Armion, Professor of English at the Université de Lyon.


* * *



John Nichols, "Biographical essay on the genius and works of Hogarth (Part II)", ed. Clifford Armion, La Clé des Langues (Lyon).

Second part of the online version of a biographical essay first published in The Works of William Hogarth, from the Original Plates restored by James Heath (London, 1822). Part of an excellent Hogarth project by Clifford Armion, Professor of English at the Université de Lyon.


* * *



Mary Webster, "Hogarth 'pittore dell'umanità' ".

Extensive biographical essay, written in Italian. Excerpt from the Italian exhibition catalogue, William Hogarth: Dipinti, Disegni, Incisioni (1989).


* * *



William Hogarth (1697-1764).

Biography with special attention to the historical background, however containing some questionable assessments, for instance, as far as Hogarth's borrowings from other masters are concerned.


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Old And Sold: Life of Hogarth.

Biography originally published as part of George Elliot Anstruther's William Hogarth (London: George Bell & Sons. 1902). See also this online version of Anstruther's book.


* * *



William Hogarth.

Biography of some length. Part of a Humanities Web site on William Hogarth.


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Shaun Wourm: William Hogarth's Realm: Biography.

Comprehensive chronology from the birth of the artist's father, Richard Hogarth, in 1663 or 1664, to the death of William Hogarth in 1764.


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Powell & Wood: Hogarth, William.

Detailed chronology, chiefly borrowed from Shaun Wourm. Formerly part of a commercial project management consultants' Web site.


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Anaïs Le Fèvre-Berthelot, "William Hogarth" (2007), La Clé des Langues (Lyon).

French biography dealing with the artistic and cultural contexts and Hogarth's francophobia.


* * *



William Hogarth (1697-1764).

Biography primarily borrowed from the first volume of John Nichols / George Steevens, The Genuine Works of William Hogarth, published in 1808.


* * *



Wikipedia.org: William Hogarth.

Essay on Hogarth from Wikipedia, the free Internet encyclopedia, gathering paragraphs written by many different contributors.


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ART "4" "2"-DAY: Born on 10 November 1697: William Hogarth.

Survey of Hogarth's life and work, including several hyperlinks.


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William Hogarth: Peintre et graveur anglais.

French discussion of Hogarth's careers as an engraver, painter, satirist, and author of The Analysis of Beauty.


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Shorter Biographies:









ONLINE ESSAYS ON WILLIAM HOGARTH:




Robert L. S. Cowley, "An Examination and Interpretation of Narrative Features in 'A Rake's Progress' ", M.A. thesis, University of Birmingham, 1972.
Online presentation of the typewritten manuscript of an outstanding M.A. thesis by Hogarthian scholar Robert L. S. Cowley.


* * *



Robert L. S. Cowley, "A Review of William Hogarth's 'Marriage à la Mode' with Particular Reference to Character and Setting", Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham, 1977.

Online version of Cowley's excellent Ph.D. thesis, which was later published as as Marriage A-la-Mode: a re-view of Hogarth's narrative art, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1983.


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Mark McNally, "The marketing techniques of William Hogarth (1697-1764), artist and engraver", MLitt thesis, Durham University, 2014.

Pdf version of the author's thesis. See also this abstract.


* * *



Shaun Wourm, "Ambiguities and Paradoxes in Hogarth's Industry and Idleness".

Online version of the author's M.A. dissertation, Université Lumière Lyon II, 1997. Offers an in-depth interpretation of the twelve prints of Hogarth's Industry and Idleness series. The study is divided into two parts: I: An iconological Reading of Industry and Idleness; II: Inversion and Paradoxes: the hidden discourse of Industry and Idleness.


* * *



Ekaterina Rozanova, "Hogarth, Goya, Greuze: Moral Social Issues in Art of the Eighteenth Century", Diplomarbeit (M.A. thesis), University of Vienna, 2009.

M.A. thesis discussing how Hogarth, Goya and Greuze provided an observation of moral social issues through their art. While people in previous centuries based their observation about life and human nature on religious beliefs, the eighteenth century began to explain life and human nature more critically in terms of science and reason. The study deals with prostitution, alcoholism, physical and sexual atrocities, ignorance of the wealthy and powerful, and issues related to marriage and family life.


* * *



The Harlot's Progress in Context.

Excellent website created by Anne Wilne and a class of third-year undergraduate students at the University of Toronto Scarborough during the winter semester of 2015. Gives an in-depth analysis of Hogarth's A Harlot's Progress. Each of the six plates has been annotated, providing context to scholarly sources. The engravings can be enlarged for highly detailed viewing. Additionally, each theme can be explored individually through the sidebar.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "A Harlot's Progress von William Hogarth: Aufstieg und Fall einer Hure. Ein kurzer Überblick für deutsche Leser".

Explanation of the six prints of A Harlot's Progress for German readers. Includes many illustrations not to be found elsewhere and extensive bibliographical references.


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Werner Busch, "Die englische Kunst des 18. Jahrhunderts: Teil 1: William Hogarth".

Detailed analyses of the first scenes of A Rake's Progress and Marriage A-la-Mode. Part of a German online course offered by the faculty of the History of Art Department at the Freie Universität Berlin.


* * *



Arthur S. Marks, "Hogarth's Mackinen Children", British Art Journal, Volume 9, 2008.

Comprehensive analysis of the supposed origin of, and the complex narrative and allegory within, Hogarth's portrait of the Mackinen Children.


* * *



Diana Francocci, "The Graham Children and Painting Related to Childhood" (1997).

Interesting online article on the children depicted in Hogarth's works.


* * *



Philip Momberger, "Cinematic Techniques in William Hogarth's A Harlot's Progress", Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 33, Issue 2 (Fall 1999).

Examines the six engravings of A Harlot's Progress as if they composed a motion picture's preparatory "story board" or as if they were frames in a black-and-white silent film.


* * *



Aaron Santesso, "William Hogarth and the Tradition of Sexual Scissors", Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, 39 (Summer 1999).

Deals with the pair of scissors hanging from Moll Hackabout's belt in A Harlot's Progress, plate 1, and the sexual symbolism of scissors in some other works by Hogarth and in literary contexts.


* * *



Robert Baldwin, Actaeon and the Allegory of Vision in Hogarth's Marriage à la Mode IV: La Toilette.

Paper dealing with the motif of an African boy pointing to the horns of a statue of Actaeon as a punning reference to cuckoldry - a suggestive detail that raises a host of larger issues crucial for Marriage A-la-Mode and for Hogarth's art in general, including adultery, racial stereotypes and miscegenation, art collecting and courtly aesthetics.


* * *



Tonya Howe, "Irregular Theater, the Discourse of Farce, and Hogarth's Line of Deformity", Cerisia Cerosa, 24 March 2007.

On "irregular", and problematic, eighteenth-century popular theatrical performances ("dumb shews") that curiously form the foundational metaphor of Hogarth's own Analysis of Beauty.


* * *



James Breig, "Ingenious and Inimitable, Artist William Hogarth Chided Authority, Ridiculed Pomposity, Mocked Religion, Pointed Out Misbehavior, and Invented the Satirical Comic Strip", Colonial Williamsburg Journal, 36, no. 1 (Winter 2014).

Sees Hogarth as an inventor of "comic strips with serious points to make, and acerbic political cartoons", who "had the ability to simultaneously amuse, shock, and change society" and whose influence can be detected in cartoonists of the nineteenth and twenteenth centuries.


* * *



Bernd Krysmanski, "We see a ghost: Hogarth's satire on Methodists and Connoisseurs".

Text of an article first published in the Art Bulletin, 80 (June 1998). It compares Hogarth's anti-Methodist print Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism (1762) with its rather different, unpublished first state, Enthusiasm Delineated (1761). The latter is revealed as a polemic on shopworn French academic art theory and on misplaced, even erotically passionate enthusiasm for the old masters.


* * *



Bernd Krysmanski, "Upsetting the Balance: Hogarth and Roger de Piles".

Excerpt from the author's study of Hogarth's Enthusiasm Delineated. An extended German version of this online essay, dealing with the contemporary literary background at some length, can be found in Joachim Möller's Sister Arts volume.


* * *



Bernd Krysmanski, "Lust in Hogarth's Sleeping Congregation - Or, How to Waste Time in Post-Puritan England".

This essay suggests that the overriding theme of the engraved version of The Sleeping Congregation is Hogarth's post-Puritan view of the old vice of Acedia (indolence or sloth). It is shown that the print ironically updates a long pictorial and literary tradition of sleeping during a sermon; sleep, the characteristic signifier of indolence however combined with lustful thoughts within Hogarth's print.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "'O the Roast Beef of Old England': Hogarth in BSEfreier Zeit vor dem Tor von Calais", Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1997, 29-52.

Explains the nationalist implications of the English taste for roast beef and the Francophobe and antipapist sideswipes and puns in Hogarth's The Gate of Calais. The paper compares, in addition, the gate as shown in the picture with a traditional Gate of Hell and the contrasting motifs of a fat monk and meager French soldiers with Bosch's Gula and Bruegel's Poor and Rich Kitchen.


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Clifford Armion (ed.), The Works of William Hogarth, La Clé des Langues (Lyon).

Online version of The Works of William Hogarth, from the Original Plates restored by James Heath (London, 1822). Part of this excellent Hogarth project by Clifford Armion, Professor of English at the Université de Lyon, are also some additional online essays in French by Armion, Anaïs Le Fèvre-Berthelot, Isabelle Baudino and Nicole Henry. "The primary aim of this project is to facilitate access to William Hogarth's works on the web and to create a coherent database for teachers and researchers."


* * *



Georg Christoph Lichtenberg: Ausführliche Erklärung der Hogarthischen Kupferstiche.

Online version of Georg Christoph Lichtenberg's famous German commentaries on Hogarth's engravings (1794-99).


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Wikipedia: The Four Stages of Cruelty.

Featured Wikipedia article on Hogarth's prints of The Four Stages of Cruelty.


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Maureen Warren, "William Hogarth's Four Stages of Cruelty and Moral Blindness".

Claims that the Cruelty series was influenced by John Locke's notion of sensibility and Lord Shaftesbury's writings about the moral sense.


* * *



Wikipedia: Four Times of the Day.

Featured Wikipedia article on Hogarth's four paintings and prints of the Four Times of the Day series.


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Wikipedia: A Rake's Progress.

Featured German Wikipedia article on Hogarth's A Rake's Progress. Better than the English and French versions.


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Wikipedia: The Distrest Poet.

Good Wikipedia article on Hogarth's painting and print of The Distrest Poet.


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Benjamin N. Ungar, "Take Me to the Southwark Fair: William Hogarth's Snapshot of the Life and Times of England's Migrating Early 18th Century Poor".

Discusses Hogarth's Southwark Fair as a pictorial account of the social and cultural state of the lower urban class in early eighteenth century England.


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Valentines Mansion: Southwark Fair.

Includes some remarks on the provenance of Hogarth's painting of Southwark Fair. States that Sir Charles Raymond gave 200 guineas for the painting. As Raymond was the owner of Valentines, it seems that the picture may have hung in Valentines from the 1760s until it was sold in 1797 after the death of Donald Cameron.


* * *



Finley Foster, "William Hogarth and the Doctors", Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 32, no. 3 (July 1944).

Discusses Hogarth's depiction of quack doctors in plate 5 of A Harlot's Progress; The Company of Undertakers; plate 3 of Marriage A-la-Mode; and The Reward of Cruelty.


* * *



New Light on Hogarth.

Jeremy Bell's site on William Hogarth. Bell has always been fascinated with the work of the first truly British artist. He especially enjoys finding the many clues Hogarth left that tell the story in each painting and reading through the many commentaries that bring them to light.


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Making History Tart and Titillating: Life Takes Lemons: 18th Century Reading Room: Hogarth's The Harlot's Progress, Plate 1.

First part of a detailed analysis of the six prints of Hogarth's A Harlot's Progress. Commentary by Susan Ardelie, an eighteenth-century enthusiast. See also the commentaries on Plate 2, Plate 3, Plate 4, Plate 5 and Plate 6.


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William Hogarth Essay - Critical Essays.

e-notes article including brief biographical information, a short account of Hogarth's major works and some notes about the critical reception of his art.


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Jayme Yahr, Appropriating Identity: William Hogarth, Thomas Gainsborough, and Britain's Myth of the Self-Made Man.

On Hogarth and Gainsborough who exemplify the myth of the self-made man and comment on the shifting British social classes.


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Isabel Greschat, "William Hogarth - Ein Moralerzieher zwischen Hoffnung und Ratlosigkeit", Pädagogische Korrespondenz, 9 (1991), 67-83.

German analysis of oppositional structures characterizing Hogarth's Industry and Idleness series.


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Göttinger Taschen Calender 1787: Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Leichtgläubigkeit, Aberglauben und Fanatismus. Eine gemischte Gesellschaft. Mit der Unterschrift aus I. Joh. IV. cap., v. 13 von W. Hogarth.

Online version of Georg Christoph Lichtenberg's German eighteenth-century commentary on Hogarth's Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism. PDF document scholarly annotated by the late Professor Wolfgang Promies.


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Antony Clayton, "Credulity, Superstition and Fanaticism: who believed in ghosts in Hogarth's England?".

Online essay which attempts to unravel the intriguing iconography of Hogarth's print Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism. The author identifies the characters and events in order to illuminate the beliefs and attitudes toward ghosts and the supernatural in the middle of the eighteenth century.


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SECULARIZATION & MODERNITY RESOURCES: Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism.

Short commentary by Thomas Pfau on Hogarth's anti-Methodist print. There are also some remarks by the same author on The Sleeping Congregation.


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William Hogarth's Cunicularii. Wellcome Library Item of the month, April 2010.

Detailed discussion of Hogarth's etching, Cunicularii, or The Wise Men of Godliman in Consultation (1726), which satirises the story of Mary Toft who claimed that she could give birth to rabbits.


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David Dabydeen, "Black People in Britain: Hogarth - The Savage and the Civilised", History Today, Volume 31, Issue 9 (1981).

Article looking at Hogarth's representations of black people in the eighteenth century. See also BBC History: David Dabydeen, "The Black Figure in 18th-century Art".


* * *



Robin Simon, "Hogarth's London".

Lecture held at Gresham College, 8 October 2007. Part of the "Visual Impressions of London" lecture series.


* * *



Robin Simon, "High politics and Hellfire: William Hogarth's Portrait of Francis Dashwood".

Lecture held at Gresham College, 3 November 2008.


* * *



Andrew Graham Dixon, BBC TV documentary "Hogarth's Progress".

A few extracts from Andrew Graham-Dixon's BBC TV documentary "Hogarth's Progress" featuring the author and David Bindman discussing Hogarth's "modern moral subjects".


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Henry Grubb, "A Look at 18th Century London through the prints of William Hogarth, Gin Lane and Beer Street".

Paper produced for the NEH Seminar, "The Dutch Republic and Britain: The Making of Modern Society and a European World Economy" (2007).


* * *



Richard Cavendish, "William Hogarth dies in London", History Today, Volume 64, 10 October 2014.

Brief life, written on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of Hogarth's death.


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Artble: A Rake's Progress.

Web page briefly dealing with the story of A Rake's Progress, inspiriations for the work, the critical reception of the series, and related paintings, etc.


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The Literary Encyclopedia: I. R. F. Gordon, "A Rake's Progress (1735)".

On the origin and content of the eight plates of Hogarth's Rake's Progress series in which Tom Rakewell "represents urban bourgeois innocence, brought to ruin by aristocratic pretension".


* * *



The Rake's Progress by William Hogarth

Tony Grant's observations about Hogarth's A Rake's Progress, posted by Vic. Includes, apart from images of the eight Rake paintings, also some modern photographs of specific sites in London. Part of Jane Austen's World, a blog that brings Jane Austen, her novels, and the Regency Period alive, but also contains details about Georgian London.


* * *



Sophie Harland, "Hogarth's A Rake's Progress".

Brief account of Tom Rakewell's life as told by Hogarth in his Rake series. See also this Smarthistory version of the same article.


* * *



Artble: Captain Coram.

On the sitter; inspirations for, and critical receptions of, the work; related portraits, etc.


* * *



Wikipedia: Sigismunda mourning over the Heart of Guiscardo.

Good Wikipedia article on Hogarth's painting of Sigismunda Mourning over the Heart of Guiscardo.


* * *



Artble: Sigismunda Mourning over the Heart of Guiscardo.

On the theme of the painting; inspirations for the work; its critical reception, etc.


* * *



The Cultural and Technical Importance of Hogarth in the History of Artistic Forms.

Interesting remarks by Shaun Wourm on Thornhill's "Grand Manner", Hogarth's moral series and his breaking the codes, particularly his graphic puzzles in the tradition of allegories and emblems, his parodic subversion of the "Grand Manner", and the influence of the stage on him.


* * *



Jenny Uglow, "Smithfield Muses".

Excerpt (pp. 3-21) from the first chapter of the author's Hogarth: A Life and a World (1997).


* * *



Alain Lauzanne, "Réflexions sur l'espace et Londres dans l'oeuvre de William Hogarth", Arob@se: Journal des lettres & sciences humaines, 2, no. 2 (Winter 1996).

French article on Hogarth's London as seen in his works, focusing on pictorial space as a signifier of modified social conditions.


* * *



FONTES 52: The Analysis of Beauty.

Digital version of Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty (1753), edited with an introduction by Charles Davis.


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E-Texts: William Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty.

Another online version of Hogarth's treatise of 1753.


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Digital Library for the Decorative Arts and Material Culture: Hogarth, William, 1697-1764 / The analysis of beauty: written with a view of fixing the fluctuating ideas of taste (1753).

Online version of the original pages of the first edition of Hogarth's treatise.


* * *



UBC Fine Arts Library Displays: Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty, 1753.

Some notes on Hogarth's book including short explanations of some of its ideas and a bibliography.


* * *



Peter Bexte, "Die Schönheit der Analyse".

Postscript to the modern German edition of Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty (Dresden: Verlag der Kunst, 1995).


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Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, "Hogarth, Zergliederung der Schönheit", "Hogarth, Zergliederung der Schönheit (II)", "Hogarth, Zergliederung der Schönheit (III)".

Online versions of Lessing's reviews of the contemporary German translation of Hogarth's treatise.


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Frédéric Ogée: Présentation de l'Analyse de la beauté (3 May 1999).

Abstract of a paper delivered at the French meeting on "L'échange et la beauté: Hogarth et quelques théoriciens du beau dans l'Angleterre du XVIIIe siècle". Explains central terms of Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty. Also puts Hogarth's treatise within the context of other aesthetic theories of the time (Shaftesbury, Addison, Jonathan Richardson).


* * *



Werner Oechslin, Buch des Monats November 2000: William Hogarth: The Analysis of Beauty.

German thoughts on a passage in Lomazzo's treatise on art (1584-85) which, in its inexact English translation by Richard Haydocke (1598), had some influence upon Hogarth and the contemporary Italian and German translations of The Analysis of Beauty.


* * *



Jonathan Lamb, "Diagrams of Emotion: Hogarth's Blush and Maori Tattoos", The 18th-Century Common, 25 February 2013.

Using the pictorial tools of analysis offered by Hogarth, the author discusses the relation of blushing to tattooing by comparing Sidney Parkinson's drawings of tattooed Maori heads (1773) with Hogarth's diagram of a blush from Plate 2 to his Analysis of Beauty and with Titian's Diana and Actaeon.


* * *



Ronald Paulson, "The Aesthetics of Mourning".

Scholarly essay published in Ralph Cohen's Studies in Eighteenth-Century British Art and Aesthetics (1985). Partly deals with the aesthetic theory behind the statuary yard depicted in The Analysis of Beauty, Plate 1.


* * *



EARLY C18th AESTHETICS

Some notes on Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty. Shows that the serpentine line applies rather easily to many of the waves depicted by Peter Monamy, painter of marine subjects.


* * *



Charles Lamb, On the Genius and Character of Hogarth (1811).

Online version of Charles Lamb's famous essay, "On the Genius and Character of Hogarth; With Some Remarks on a Passage in the Writings of the Late Mr. Barry." Includes some illustrations.


* * *



Kate Lonas, "William Hogarth's Old Masters: Absent Adversaries".

Online essay primarily dealing with Hogarth's self-portrait of 1745; the satirical details in Taste in High Life; and the Old Master pictures within the pictures of the Marriage A-la-Mode series.


* * *



Caricature: Hogarth

Excerpt from The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907-21), Volume XIV: The Victorian Age.


* * *



Great Works: Characters and Caricaturas (1743): William Hogarth.

Independent article interpreting Hogarth's print as a kind of "Identity Parade".


* * *



WILLIAM HOGARTH: The Man, The Artist and His Masonic Circle.

Paper by W.Bro. Yasha Beresiner dealing with Hogarth's involvement with freemasonry, both artistically and personally.


* * *



Jacob Hugo Tatsch, "William Hogarth", MasonicDictionary.com.

The first part of this paper provides a short account of Hogarth's life and art, the second part is on the artist as a freemason. Source: The Builder, March 1923.


* * *



Laurence Sterne and William Hogarth in Parallel.

Web site on Laurence Sterne and Hogarth created by S. Piazza, I. Grassi and I. Mastroianni.


* * *



Henry Fielding's Debt to William Hogarth.

Excerpt from V[ivian] de S[ola] Pinto, 'William Hogarth', in The New Pelican Guide to English Literature: 4. From Dryden to Johnson (1997). On Hogarth and Fielding, see also the Preface to Joseph Andrews (1742).


* * *



History of the 19th Century in Political Cartoons. By Arthur Bartlett Maurice and Frederic Taber Cooper. London: Grant Richards, 1904. Chapter II: Hogarth and His Times.

On the development of English caricature which was destined to be guided by the "giant genius" of Hogarth. However, his best work was done on the social rather than on the political side.


* * *



SELWYN BRINTON, "The Comedy of Vice" .

Chapter II of Selwyn Brinton's The Eighteenth Century in English Caricature (London: A. Siegle, 1904) deals with "the pictured comedies of William Hogarth", showing that his art is generally directed to some moral purpose, but "in other subjects—where the moral lesson is either absent or less intrusive—the man's fancy runs absolutely riot in humorous observation."


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Old And Sold: Hogarth As Artist, Chronicler, And Moralist.

Originally published as part of George Elliot Anstruther's William Hogarth (London: George Bell & Sons. 1902). See also this online version of Anstruther's book.


* * *



Vic Gatrell, London and the Pleasure Principle: Tate Britain Hogarth Exhibition, Symposium 9 February 2007.

The author endeavours to show that Hogarth isn't, in our modern sense, "comic", that his scenes of London are heavily loaded with allegorical meaning, that there is next to no warmth or generosity in his work and that even his humour was cruel. It is further explained that the purposes, meanings, and tone of later Georgian and Regency satire changed utterly, being no longer didactic and becoming increasingly personalised, less theatrical, less informal in expression and more fluid in execution.


* * *



Artble: William Hogarth.

Hogarth page including a brief biography, but also dealing with the artistic context and the artist's style, technique and influences. Part of an encyclopedic webpage where you can find unique information about artists from many different art periods.


* * *



John D. Tatter, "Satiric and Social Painting: Hogarth, Watteau, and Fragonard".

Illustrations of, and commentaries on, Hogarth's Self Portrait with Pug and the Marriage A-la-Mode paintings. Click on the small images to enlarge.


* * *



Archive for the "The Horrible Hogarth" Category.

"The Horrible Hogarth" Web site, including a somewhat unorthodox, though very interesting, reading of Marriage A-la-Mode, which primarily deals with the sexual innuendo within the series. Part of a blog by Anthony Samuelson.


* * *



National Gallery, London: Hogarth, William.

Some brief remarks on Hogarth's life plus illustrations of, and commentaries on, The Graham Children; The Shrimp Girl; and the six paintings of the Marriage A-la-Mode series.


* * *



Tate Britain: William Hogarth.

Hogarth's works in London's Tate Britain.


* * *



George P. Landow: "The Influence of William Hogarth on Pre-Raphaelite Integrated Symbolism."

Shows that both William Holman Hunt and Hogarth successfully combined realism with elaborate iconography and the use of the written word to clarify the meaning of their images. Also deals with the parallels between Hunt and Hogarth.


* * *



Joe Gollner, "The Satiric Art of William Hogarth" (1987).

Compares three examples of Hogarth's work: The Wollaston Family; The Good Samaritan; and the first plate of A Rake's Progress.


* * *



Jonathan Jones, "Hogarth's anti-progress: how the father of British painting went missing from our galleries", The Guardian, 24 October 2014.

The author laments that the scathing satirist William Hogarth put Britain's painters on the map, but on the 250th anniversary of his death one had a hard time seeing his work.


* * *



Terence Bowers, "Hogarth's Peregrination, Chorography, and the Representation of England."

Abstract of a paper read at Writing the Journey: A Conference on American, British and Anglophone Travel Writers and Writing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 10-13 June 1999.


* * *



Annie Richardson, "Hogarth and the aesthetics of dance".

Abstract of a paper read at the Dance Symposium, "So Publick an Approbation": Attitudes to dance in eighteenth-century England, New College, Oxford, 26 April 2000. See also the author's article, "An Aesthetics of Performance: Dance in Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty".


* * *



London's Street Noises: The Enraged Musician by William Hogarth.

Posted by Vic. Part of Jane Austen's World, a blog that brings Jane Austen, her novels, and the Regency Period alive, but also contains details about Georgian London.


* * *



The Norton Anthology of English Literature: A Day in Eighteenth-Century London: Texts and Contexts: William Hogarth, The Enraged Musician.

Part of The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century: Topics, an excellent site prepared by Lawrence Lipking.


* * *



Werner Busch, "Die englische Kunst des 18. Jahrhunderts", in Kunst: die Geschichte ihrer Funktionen, Weinheim, 1987, 637-673.

Survey of English art of the eighteenth century. Includes a section on Hogarth.


* * *



Werner Busch, "Die Kunst der Aufklärung in gesamteuropäischer Perspektive", in Die Kunst der Aufklärung - The Art of the Enlightenment, Beijing, 2011-2012.

German article on European art of the Enlightenment. Includes a discussion of Hogarth's borrowings from traditional religious art.


* * *



Michael Dean, "William Hogarth and Georgian Life", History Today, 24 September 2012.

Short article on Hogarth's life as a microcosm of the three main themes of Georgian life: money, the home and sex.


* * *



Arts Council: William Hogarth (1697-1764), "The Christening" (or "Orator Henley Christening a Child").

Brief description of one of Hogarth's early paintings showing a christening taking place in the interior of a wealthy home. The painting is in good condition, but may have been slightly reduced on the right hand side at some earlier point in its history.


* * *



A Harlot's Progress.

Commentary on Hogarth's Harlot series by Neil McWilliam.


* * *



An Election Series 1753-1754.

Commentary on Hogarth's Election series by Neil McWilliam.


* * *



William Hogarth: A brief history of William Hogarth's paintings at St. Bartholomew's Hospital (by Marion Hill, Archivist, Barts) and diagnosis of the sick depicted in the Pool of Bethesda (by Prof David Lowe).

Short information on Hogarth's paintings for the Grand Staircase in the North Wing of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, focusing on The Pool of Bethesda.


* * *



William Hogarth: The artist behind the Barts staircase paintings.

Another page on Hogarth's The Good Samaritan and Christ at the Pool of Bethesda - biblical scenes that illustrate caring and healing. "Hogarth may have used patients from Barts wards as models for the crowd of sick and injured people around the pool."


* * *



Jonathan Jones, "Hogarth's The Shrimp Girl (c1745)", Guardian Unlimited, 15 September 2001.

Interprets the unknown street-seller in Hogarth's oil sketch as a lively personification of London.


* * *



William Hogarth, Beer Street and Gin Lane, two prints.

Part of a British Museum site providing short commentaries on, and images of, Hogarth's prints. Related pages include information on William Hogarth's gold admission ticket to Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens; The Bad Taste of the Town; A Rake's Progress, plate 8; Characters and Caricaturas; an unfinished proof engraving of Gulielmus Hogarth; Plate II of Marriage A-la-Mode, and The Idle 'Prentice betrayed by his Whore and taken in a night cellar with his accomplice, illustrating different stages in the creative process involved in making one of the twelve prints in Hogarth's series, Industry and Idleness.


* * *



Beer Street (1750-1751), Gin Lane (1750-1751); The Analysis of Beauty, Plate I (1753).

Commentaries on these prints by Neil McWilliam.


* * *



Ernest L. Abel, "Gin Lane: did Hogarth know about fetal alcohol syndrome?"

Online version of an article first published in Alcohol and Alcoholism, 36, No. 2 (2001), 131-34. Demonstrates that claims about Hogarth's awareness of the stigmata of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in his print Gin Lane are unfounded, though the 'gin epidemic' in eighteenth-century London undoubtedly resulted in the increased birth of weak and sickly children.


* * *



daily LUSH: Gin Lane by William Hogarth.

Brief discussion of England's Gin Fever depicted in Gin Lane.


* * *



Gin Lane vs Beer Street.

Article published in The Economist, 26 October 2014, demonstrating both the artist's humour and his heartfelt concern for his fellow Londoners.


* * *



Elizabeth Hoyt, "Gin, Hogarth, and the Horrible Crime of Judith Dufour" .

Suggests that the melodramatic main scene in Gin Lane is probably based on a real one: the case of Judith Dufour.


* * *



Max Pemberton, "William Hogarth's Gin Lane has a lesson for binge-drinking Britain", The Telegraph, 30 December 2012.

Demonstrates that the gin craze of the first half of the eighteenth century, which prompted Hogarth's 1751 prints Gin Lane and Beer Street, has many similarities to the current problems we face with the epidemic of binge drinking.


* * *



William Hogarth: "Beer Street and Gin Lane", kammermusikkammer.blogspot.de (2013).

Detailed German discussion of Beer Street and Gin Lane, based on Berthold Hinz, William Hogarth: Beer Street and Gin Lane: Lehrtafeln zur britischen Volkswohlfahrt (Frankfurt am Main, 1984).


* * *



Jonathan Jones, "How a William Hogarth painting predicted Brexit 250 years ago", The Guardian, 14 June 2016.

On Hogarth's painting The Gate of Calais (O! The Roast Beef of Old England) (1748), which can help us understand what is going on in the mind of the Brexit-leaning public.


* * *



The Marriage Contract (1733); The Pool of Bethesda (1736); The Country Dance (1745); Moses Brought before Pharaoh's Daughter (1746); Calais Gate, or O The Roast Beef of Old England (1748); The March to Finchley (1749-50); Sigismunda (1759); The Lady's Last Stake (1758-59); Paul before Felix (1748).

Brief analyses of all these paintings by Neil McWilliam.


* * *



Portraits: Miss Mary Edwards (1742).

Commentaries by Neil McWilliam on this portrait and Hogarth's Captain Coram. See also the commentaries on other portraits, such as Sarah Malcolm (1732), David Garrick in the Character of Richard III (1745) and David Garrick and his Wife (1757); or Hogarth's Servants and Francis Matthew Schutz in his Bed.


* * *



Family portraits and Conversation Pieces.

Commentaries by Neil McWilliam and David Bindman on The Graham Children (1742); The Cholmondeley Family (1732); The Woodes Rogers Family (1729); and The Wollaston Family (1730). See also the commentaries on The Christening; The Denunciation; Lord Hervey and his Friends; The Fountaine Family; The Wedding of Stephen Beckingham and Mary Cox; and The House of Cards; or An Assembly at Wanstead House and A Scene from 'The Conquest of Mexico'.


* * *



Reason and Fantasy in an age of enlightenment: William Hogarth: A Harlot's Progress.

Brief commentaries on the six prints of A Harlot's Progress. Part of a Web site by the Ackland Art Museum, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


* * *



Allen Memorial Art Museum: Collection: William Hogarth, Portrait of Theodore Jacobsen.

Detailed information on Hogarth's portrait of Theodore Jacobsen, a successful merchant and amateur architect who was, like Hogarth, a staunch supporter of the Foundling Hospital in London.


* * *



William Hogarth, Portrait of Daniel Lock (1762).

Brief information about this specific portrait. From A Handbook of the Collection, The Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.


* * *



Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: Hogarth: behind the portraits.

Presents the biographies of some of Hogarth's sitters, associates, and well-known figures from the period. "Read the lives behind the portraits for a glimpse of Hogarth's world."


* * *



"Election Campaigning Now and Then,"The Web of Time: Pages from the American Past, Volume 3, Number 1.

Short article from the magazine of American history, archaeology, antique collecting, museum exhibits, and related travel destinations. Offers brief descriptions of the Election pictures and demonstrates how far we have come since Hogarth recorded the British parliamentary election at Oxford in 1754.


* * *



Caroline Parkes, "Art as a Representation of Resistance", in Slave Resistance: A Caribbean Study, section "Art Representations of Resistance."

Part of a Web site created by students of the University of Miami who took, as their group project, the Spring 2000 edition of History 300: Caribbean: Slavery and Resistance. Deals with William Blake's portrayals of punished slaves and Hogarth's depiction of blacks in plates 2 and 4 of A Harlot's Progress and in Morning. Concludes, in line with David Dabydeen's Hogarth's Blacks, that "Hogarth used the African to call into question the foundation of British and colonial society. He highlighted the moral corruption, that took place under the establishment of the colonies and slavery - and the consequences this new found wealth had on British society." Click on the essay, "Art as a Representation of Resistance".


* * *



Audrey Shafer: Hogarth, William, Marriage à la Mode (3): The Visit to the Quack Doctor.

Deals with the third scene of Marriage A-la-Mode from a medical point of view.


* * *



William Hogarth.

Short commentaries on A Harlot's Progress, A Rake's Progress, Marriage A-la-Mode, Noon, Enthusiasm Delineated and Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism, and The Times, Plate I, all borrowed from other Internet sources.


* * *



The British Museum: factsheet: William Hogarth (1697-1764).

Short account of Hogarth's career as a painter and engraver. Also includes some notes on the British Museum collection of Hogarth's drawings and prints.


* * *



Carmela Thiele, "William Hogarth: Außenseiter mit exzentrischem Humor", Deutschlandfunk, 26 October 2014.

Text of a short radio feature produced on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of Hogarth's death and dealing with the artist's life, his "modern moral subjects" and the Engraver's Copyright Act.


* * *



William Hogarth, British, 1697-1764, A Scene from The Beggar's Opera, 1728/1729.

Notes on Hogarth's picture presented by the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. From the Tour: British and American History Paintings of the 1700s. See also Biography, Bibliography and Exhibition History.


* * *



Gemma Sykes, "William Hogarth: 'Mr Garrick in the character of Richard III'", Finding Shakespeare, 7 June 2016.

Discussion of Hogarth's portrait of the actor David Garrick in the Character of Richard III, "awakening from his horrifying dream in Act 5, Scene 3, in which he sees a parade of the ghosts of his murder victims."


* * *



Charles Harrison Wallace, "Hogarth, Monamy, and The Connoisseur".

On the picture, Monamy the Painter showing a Sea-piece to Mr Walker, said to be painted by Hogarth and Peter Monamy. Part of a site which gives a full account of the life and work of Peter Monamy (1681-1749), painter of marine subjects.


* * *



melbourneblogger: William Hogarth, English pride and 18th century gallophobia.

Discusses some of Hogarth's paintings and prints that are related to the Jacobite rebellion, but were executed AFTER the Jacobites had been defeated.


* * *



The Art Fund: search results for William Hogarth.

"Art Fund" page, listing several paintings by Hogarth. The Art Fund is the UK's largest arts charity. Its mission is to save art that would otherwise disappear from public museums and galleries in the UK.


* * *



John Johnson Collection Exhibition 2001: Ellis Gamble. [Goldsmith]. (William Hogarth) (c. 1724 or 1728).

Brief information on Hogarth's trade card for Ellis Gamble. See also the commentaries on the forgery or (rejected) proof of Hogarth's own trade card from the same collection.


* * *



William Hogarth's Night.

Masonic page presenting a copy after Hogarth's Night, engraved by Charles Spooner. Says that "George W. Speth suggests that the picture is of Hartshorn Lane, Charing Cross".


* * *



Hogarth and marine painters.

Part of a Web site by the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. Shows that Hogarth, Governor of the Foundling Hospital and a friend of sea captain Thomas Coram, certainly knew the new generation of British marine painters.


* * *



Crystal Smith, "Watteau and Hogarth: A Romantic and an Entertainer". Suite101.com (15 March 2011).

Thoughts about Hogarth and Watteau, showing that both artists had extremely different styles and ideas about their artwork. See also Philip Nightingale, "Painter William Hogarth 1697-1764".


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Kathleen Duffy, "Visit William Hogarth's House in Turnham Green, Chiswick, London".

Description of a visit to Hogarth's house in Chiswick, including some photographs taken by the author.


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Antiques of the Orient: William Hogarth.

Short remarks on Hogarth's life and work. Part of a Singapore antiquarian's site.








ONLINE EXHIBITIONS AND REVIEWS OF MUSEUM EXHIBITIONS:




Angela Rosenthal (curator), William Hogarth and Eighteenth-Century Print Culture, exh., Mary and Leigh Block Gallery, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 17 April-22 June 1997.
Online exhibition critically reassessing the satirical graphic work of Hogarth by highlighting a variety of eighteenth-century themes, e.g. Hogarth's deep concern with the ills of the modern city, the dignity of and the dangers faced by prostitutes, and issues of theatricality, race, class, and taste. For the accompanying programmes and events, see also Hogarth and 18th-Century Print Culture Exhibition Events.


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James Christen Steward (curator), Hogarth and His Times: Serious Comedy, Berkeley Art Museum, University of California, 1998.

Survey of the exhibition organised to celebrate the 300th anniversary of Hogarth's birth.


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Haley & Steele presents: William Hogarth (1697-1764).

Cached version of an American printseller's site on Hogarth, focusing on the prints. The original site is now closed. It included illustrations and descriptions of many plates and information about the different states and editions of Hogarth's engravings. The commentaries were provided by Edward Hammonds.


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Tate Britain: Hogarth Exhibition (2007): Room Guide.

Room guide to the most comprehensive exhibition of Hogarth's paintings and prints in a generation, showcasing every aspect of the artist's multi-faceted career: his remarkable paintings, ranging from elegant conversation pieces to salacious brothel scenes; his vibrant drawings and sketches; and the numerous satirical engravings for which he is most famous today.



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Jenny Uglow, "The great showman", The Guardian, 13 January 2007.

Review of the great Hogarth exhibition at Tate Britain, London, 7 February to 29 April 2007. Inspired by the satire of Swift and Fielding, and the mixture of tragedy and comedy in Shakespeare, Hogarth was the most literary and theatrical of painters, writes Jenny Uglow.


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Richard Dorment, "Finding the fun and frolics in Hogarth," Daily Telegraph, 6 February 2007.

Article dealing with Tate Britain's comprehensive exhibition of Hogarth's paintings and prints, giving a brief review of his life and work. The author sees Hogarth as "a high-spirited chronicler of extraordinary times," who was able "to recall a scene at will" and "painted straight on to the canvas so that nothing stood between him and the fluent, spontaneous application of paint."


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Brian Sewell, "Hogarth the Ham-Fisted," Evening Standard, 9 February 2007.

Overly critical analysis of Hogarth's art on the occasion of the major exhibition at the Tate Britain, London. The author abandons his former "view of Hogarth as 'a painter's painter' ... who lifted English art out of the rut of portraiture, set it on the course of history painting based on Shakespeare and Milton (...) and determined that every painting should tell a moral story of some sort, ... that Hogarth was a man who understood the nature of oil paint as a material of virtue in itself, ... that he let the paint flow from the brush in such a way that throughout his work there was a spontaneity of touch, a painterliness that was as customary and masterly as the touch of Watteau, Lancret and Pater." Actually, with his superficial common sense rooted in blind anger rather than reason, Hogarth "was a propagandist who could not discern the causes of those aspects of society against which he raged. Concerned only with the consequences of all that he condemned, his oratorical preaching - for that is what it was - immediately became an over-emphatic rant in his crude insistence on excessive and repetitive detail to reinforce a point."


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Adrian Searle, "The fun of filth," Guardian Unlimited, Tuesday February 6, 2007.

On Tate Britain's new exhibition, recently shown at the Louvre, which "brings the printmaker and the painter together, covering the entirety of Hogarth's career." According to the author, Hogarth's world "is rich, rude, teeming with life - and wonderfully familiar."


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Jonathan Jones, "Tunnel vision," Guardian Unlimited, Tuesday January 23, 2007.

On Hogarth's Francophobic imaginings and on the Louvre's decision "to display British art with the respect it gets in American museums or at Russia's Hermitage."


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24 Hour Museum: Graham Spice, "FIRST MAJOR HOGARTH DISPLAY FOR 30 YEARS COMES TO TATE BRITAIN."

On the darkly satirical world of Hogarth's London at Tate Britain. The show brings together "a wide and cleverly displayed range of his works from all periods of his 40-year career, many borrowed from collections around the world."


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Michéle C. Cone, "Sexual Mores".

On the Hogarth exhibition at the Louvre, focusing on the artist's self-portraits and narrative series.


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About Tate: Press Office: Press Releases: Hogarth.

Commentary on the major exhibition of Hogarth's work which opened at Tate Britain on 7 February 2007. This exhibition includes over 200 works and showcases every aspect of Hogarth's multi-faceted career: his remarkable paintings, ranging from elegant conversation pieces to salacious brothel scenes.


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York art historian puts Hogarth in the spotlight.

On Mark Hallett's major role in conceiving and organising the layout of the "most comprehensive exhibition of Hogarth's work for a generation" at Tate Britain.


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Christie Davies enjoys the erotic romps daringly portrayed by the artists of eighteenth century France and Hogarth's denunciations of them as unspeakable French filth: The Triumph of Eros at the Hermitage Rooms and Hogarth at Tate Britain.

Review of two exhibitions: (1) The Triumph of Eros: Art and Seduction in 18th Century France, Hermitage Rooms at Somerset House, London, 24 November 2005 - 8 April 2007, and (2) Hogarth, Tate Britain, London, 7 February - 29 April 2007.


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Richard Dorment, "A fascinating failure", Daily Telegraph, 23 August 2000.

Overly critical review of Marcia Pointon's exhibition, Hogarth's 'Sigismunda' in focus, Tate Britain, London, 24 July-4 November 2000. "Despite Tate Britain's irritatingly glib presentation of the work, Richard Dorment discovers an illuminating story behind one of Hogarth's least successful paintings."


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Richard Dorment, Hogarth's Marriage A-la-Mode, National Gallery, 15 October 1997 - 18 January 1998.

Perceptive review of the National Gallery exhibition curated by Judy Egerton. Emphasises Hogarth's maturity as a painter in creating the six Marriage A-la-Mode paintings.


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William Hogarth, 1697 - 1764.

Review of an exhibition of Hogarth's works at Tate Britain, London, 27 October 2014 - 26 April 2015, and the Bristol Museum & Art Gallery, 16 May - 31 August 2015, marking the 250th anniversary of the artist's death.


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Peter Watts, "Lust, gin and grime: 'Hogarth's London' at the Cartoon Museum", Apollo, 7 November 2014.

Review of an exhibition of fifty of Hogarth's best-known London satirical prints at London's Cartoon Museum, 22 October 2014 - 18 January 2015.


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Martin Oldham, "Rise and Fall: 'Progress' at The Foundling Museum", Apollo, 17 June 2014.

Review of an exhibition at London's Foundling Museum on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of Hogarth's death, showing four contemporary artists responding to Hogarth's A Rake's Progress.


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Vices of Life: The Prints of William Hogarth.

Review of an exhibition of Hogarth's prints at Frankfurt's Städel Museum, 10 June - 6 September 2015.


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Christian Thomas, "Tollhausgemachte Ausschweifungen", Frankfurter Rundschau, 9 June 2015.

German review of the exhibition of some 70 of Hogarth's prints at the Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, curated by Annett Gerlach.


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Hans-Bernd Heier, " 'Laster des Lebens' von William Hogarth im Städel Museum: Bilderzählungen voller Drastik, Tragik und Komik", FeuilletonFrankfurt: Das Online Magazin von Erhard Metz.

Another German review of the exhibition of Hogarth's prints at the Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main.


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William Hogarth: A Harlot’s Progress and Other Stories.

Review of an exhibition of Hogarth's prints at the Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, 14 April - 7 August 2016.


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Harvard University Art Museums Press Releases: Fogg Exhibition Examines Printmaker William Hogarth's Treatment of Execution.

Review of Elizabeth Kathleen Mitchell's exhibition, Death by Hogarth, which was on display at the Fogg Art Museum from 8 May through 18 July, 1999. It examined the execution theme in Hogarth's prints from three points of view: as performance, as death sentenced on official order, and as the process of following a plan through to its natural end - with an emphasis on images related to hanging. For more details, see the catalogue of this exhibition.


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Chandra Speeth, "Subversion and wit, 18th-century style", The Yale Herald Online, 1997.

Review of the exhibition, Among the Whores and Thieves: William Hogarth and "The Beggar's Opera", Yale Center for British Art, 1997. See also Yale Bulletin & Calendar News Stories. There is also a catalogue of this exhibition, edited by David Bindman.


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Janaki Ranpura, "Art Review BAC exhibit explores England's darker side" (7 February 1997).

Another review of the Yale Center exhibition, Among the Whores and Thieves.


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William Zimmer, "Money, Lawyers and the First P.M." The New York Times, 23 February 1997.

New York Times review of the same exhibition.


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William Wilson, "ART REVIEW: Hogarth's Women--Some People of Real Dimension", Los Angeles Times, 2 October 1995.

Los Angeles Times review of Patricia Crown's exhibition, "Depictions of Women by William Hogarth and His Contemporaries.", The Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens, 1995.


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Jonathan Jones, "Artists at the Hustings", Sir John Soane's Museum, London. Guardian Unlimited, 4 April 2001.

Review of the exhibition, Hogarth's Election Entertainment: Artists at the Hustings (Sir John Soane's Museum, 23 March - 25 August 2001), based on the four paintings of Hogarth's Election series. The same exhibition was shown at the Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle, 6 October 2001 - 6 January 2002.


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William Hogarth: Conversation Piece, Pallant House Gallery, 18 January - 9 March 2003.

This exhibition considered Hogarth's bawdy print series An Election in relation to his The Beggar's Opera Act III, the 'conversation' painting that made his reputation.


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William Hogarth: British Satirical Prints, Patrick and Beatrice Haggerty Museum of Art, 7 February-13 April 2008.

Leaflet providing information about the artist and the prints presented in the exhibition, "William Hogarth: British Satirical Prints".


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8 July 2008: Cautionary Tales - William Hogarth, National Library of New Zealand.

Exhibition of more than 50 of Hogarth's witty, subversive and often riotously humorous prints, all drawn from the collections of the Alexander Turnbull Library.


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Gerald Isaaman, "When Gin Lane was the road to mother's ruin", Camden New Journal, 18 September 2003.

Review of an exhibition held to celebrate the 250th anniversary of the British Museum, which was founded in 1753. There is also a catalogue by Sheila O'Connell on this exhibition.


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Jonathan Heawood, "London, city of sin and gin...", The Observer, 1 June, 2003.

Another review of the British Museum exhibition on mid-eighteenth-century London. Hogarth's images are central to this exhibition. They show protagonists such as the "prostitutes, fops, apprentices and artists" who where "repeatedly swung over the wheel of fate, falling from the bright lights of the West End to the dark cells of Newgate and Bedlam."


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Art Critic London: "Streets of shame: 'London 1753'. British Museum, 020 7323 8299, until Nov 23".

Another review of the British Museum exhibition depicting London in 1753 and dominated by Hogarth's horrifying, squalor-filled images.


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Lisa Small, "William Hogarth's Election series", Brooklyn Museum, 2012.

On the four Election series prints (published in 1757-58 and based on his paintings dated 1754-55), in which Hogarth turned his attention from the squalor of urban life to the corruption of the political world.


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Hogarth to Hockney: A Rake's Progress.

Short information about a Whitworth Art Gallery exhibition, 6 October 2012 - 3 February 2013, showing both David Hockney's and Hogarth's print series, A Rake's Progress.


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Blake Gopnik, "At Pittsburgh's Frick, William Hogarth Shows His Chops as a Painter", artnet news, 17 November 2015.

On the portrait of the Honorable John Hamilton, showing that "Hogarth the caricaturist was also hugely skilled at making high-end, undistorted realist portraits."


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Javier Docampo, "British Satirical Prints: Hogarth and His Age".

Survey of the Spanish exhibition, La estampa satírica británica: Hogarth y su tiempo, Biblioteca Nacional, 1 February - 1 April 2001.


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Rafael Sierra, "William Hogarth, el abuelo de los 'Spitting Image': La Biblioteca Nacional reúne en una exposición a los artistas británicos más mordaces y los enfrenta a Goya", El Mundo, 13, No. 4082 (1 February 2001).

Spanish review of the exhibition of British satirical prints at the Biblioteca Nacional, curated by Javier Docampo (see above).


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William Hogarth (1697–1764) - Londons Laster, Kunsthalle Bremen, 21 May - 17 August 2014.

Commentary on a German exhibition of Hogarth's engravings at the Kunsthalle Bremen on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the artist's death.


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William Hogarth - Dirne, Wüstling und eine moderne Ehe.

Commentary on a German exhibition at the Hamburger Kunsthalle which closed in January 2003. Prints from four series were shown: A Harlot's Progress, A Rake's Progress, Marriage A-la-Mode and The Four Times of the Day.


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Fanny Gonella / Christoph Heinrich, "William Hogarth: Dirne, Wüstling und eine moderne Ehe, bis 17. November 2002, Hegewisch-Kabinett".

Notes on the German exhibition of Hogarth's engravings at the Hamburger Kunsthalle.


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Maike Schiller, "Kunstvolle Sticheleien: AUSSTELLUNG. William Hogarths Kupferstiche im Hegewisch-Kabinett der Kunsthalle", Hamburger Abendblatt, 19 August 2002.

Review of the exhibition of Hogarth's works at the Hamburger Kunsthalle.


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Jens Bisky, "Eine häßliche Welt in schönen Formen: Die Berliner Nationalgalerie zeigt Hogarths 'Marriage à-la-mode' und Werke seiner Bewunderer", Berliner Zeitung, 19 December 1998.

German review of the exhibition, Marriage A-la-Mode: Hogarth und seine deutschen Bewunderer, Altes Museum, Berlin, 18 December 1998-28 February 1999, which was also shown at the Städel, Frankfurt. There is a well-illustrated catalogue of this exhibition, including essays by Judy Egerton, Werner Busch, Karl Arndt, Claude Keisch, Martina Dillmann, and others.


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Christina Tilmann, Lob des Lasters: Erstmals kompletter Hogarth-Zyklus "Marriage à-la-mode" im Alten Museum Berlin, Der Tagesspiegel, 18 December 1998.

Another review of the Berlin Marriage A-la-Mode exhibition.


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"On Campus: Exhibition Looks at Hogarth Prints of the 18th Century London Stage", News@UW-Madison, 15 April 1997.

Brief review of Andrew Stevens's exhibition, Hogarth and the Shows of London, Elvehjem Museum of Art, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Brittingham Gallery VII, 26 April-29 June 1997. On performances of The Beggar's Opera and a lecture accompanying the same exhibition when shown at The Douglas F. Cooley Memorial Art Gallery at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, 7 November 1996-1 January 1997, see also "18th-Century Hogarth Theater Prints Come to Reed", Reed College Press Release, 8 October 1996.


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TWO EXHIBITIONS, 270 YEARS APART, TAKE ON THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AT THE CROCKER ART MUSEUM.

Excerpt from a page including a commentary on The London Observer: Engravings by William Hogarth, an exhibition of over 50 prints by Hogarth shown at the Crocker Art Museum, 12 July - 22 September 2002.


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William Hogarth: Proceed with Caution, exhibition, Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas, 6 October 2012-20 January 2013.

Exhibition bringing together a selection of the artist's most important eighteenth-century series including Marriage A-la-Mode, A Rake's Progress, and Industry and Idleness, "each intended to evoke several layers of society."


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Veit Heinrich, "Urvater des Comic strip: Das Kupferstichkabinett Dresden zeigt Grafik von William Hogarth", Berliner Zeitung, 14 December 1995.

Brief review of the German exhibition, Von Wüstlingen und anderen Zeitgenossen, Kupferstichkabinett Dresden, 9 November 1995 - 2 February 1996.


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Simon Barker-Benfield, "William Hogarth's satirical vision of 18th-century England" (The Florida Times-Union, 4 May 2000).

Some remarks on Hogarth and particularly the first scene of Marriage A-la-Mode which forms part of the exhibition, Parody and Politics: The World of William Hogarth (1697-1764) at the Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens.


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William Hogarth: Printmaker.

Some remarks on a Courtauld Gallery exhibition, 23 February - 13 May 2001.


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Kunsthaus Zürich: Karikaturen: Von Hogarth bis Daumier.

Brief information on an exhibition of works by Hogarth, some Swiss caricaturists, and Daumier in the Kunsthaus Zurich, 16 February-22 April 2001.








REVIEWS OF BOOKS DEALING WITH WILLIAM HOGARTH:




David Chandler, "Jenny Uglow, Hogarth: A Life and a World, London: Faber and Faber, 1997", Romanticism On the Net, 8 (November 1997).
Calls Jenny Uglow's book a "vivid and enthralling biography" of Hogarth and "a vibrant portrait of the age in which he lived".


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Bruce Cook, "Artist a la Mode", Washington Post, 9 November 1997.

Review of Jenny Uglow's Hogarth. Says that the book "welcomes the reader; it is thoroughly researched, yet written with great enthusiasm for that mad, crude, besotted age and a great affection for the man who pictured it so well in all its grim glory".


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Michael Kimmelman, "An 18th-Century Paparazzo: A biography of Hogarth examines the art and times of the engraver and painter", The New York Times, 30 November 1997.

Another review of Jenny Uglow, Hogarth: A Life and a World (1997).


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Paint job: Hogarth, by Jenny Uglow (Faber, £20), Guardian Unlimited, 29 June, 2002.

Review by Veronica Horwell.


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Thomas W. Rieger, "David Bindman, Hogarth and his Times: Serious Comedy. Exhibition catalogue. London, British Museum, Sept, 26, 1997 - Jan, 4, 1998; Berkeley Art Museum, University of California, Jan - Apr, 1998; Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, June - Aug, 1998; New York, Wallach Art Gallery, Columbia University, Sept - Nov, 1998. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997. Prolepsis: The Tübingen Review of English Studies, 2 February 1999.

Review of David Bindman's British Museum catalogue of 1997.


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W[illiam] A[rthur] Speck, "Prints in Perspective", H-Albion, H-Net Reviews, May 2000.

Review of Mark Hallett, The Spectacle of Difference: Graphic Satire in the Age of Hogarth, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1999.


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J. H. Baron, "From Hogarth to Rowlandson: Medicine in Art in Eighteenth Century Britain", British Medical Journal, 314 (22 March 1997).

Review of Fiona Haslam, From Hogarth to Rowlandson: Medicine in Art in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1996.


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Helmut Hirsch, "Zerklärungen und skandaleuse Excursionen", Berliner LeseZeichen, 4 (2000).

Review of Wolfgang Promies (ed.), Lichtenbergs Hogarth: Die Kalender-Erklärungen von Georg Christoph Lichtenberg mit den Nachstichen von Ernst Ludwig Riepenhausen zu den Kupferstich-Tafeln von William Hogarth, Munich: Carl Hanser, 1999. It should be noted that these early Hogarth commentaries by Lichtenberg are not identical with the better known, and more detailed, descriptions in his Ausführliche Erklärung der Hogarthischen Kupferstiche.


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Bernd Krysmanski, "Lichtenbergs Hogarth. Die Kalender-Erklärungen von Georg Christoph Lichtenberg mit den Nachstichen von Ernst Ludwig Riepenhausen zu den Kupferstich-Tafeln von William Hogarth. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Promies, München; Wien: Carl Hanser Verlag 1999." Server Frühe Neuzeit / KUNSTFORM, 2 (1 December 2000).

Short, revised Online version of a lengthy review which appeared in the Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 1999, 257-68.


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G. Sertoli, "L'analisi della bellezza", L'Indice del 1999, n. 06

Review of C. Maria Laudando's modern Italian translation of Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty.


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Martin Heusser, "Re-reading 18th-century Prints", Interactions - The Bulletin of I.A.W.I.S., No. 16 (April 1996).

Review of Peter Wagner, Reading Iconotexts: From Swift to the French Revolution, London: Reaktion Books, 1995.


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Tissues of Allusions: Reading Iconotexts, A Review By Leonard Rifas, TCJ [The Comics Journal], No. 188 (July 1996), 27.

Another review of Wagner's book.


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Alvan Bregman, "Hogarth's Christian Doctrine".

Review of Ronald Paulson's Hogarth's Harlot: Sacred Parody in Enlightenment England (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003).


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Kate Grandjouan, "Hogarth's Hidden Parts: Satiric Allusion, Erotic Wit, Blasphemous Bawdiness and Dark Humour in Eighteenth-Century English Art", Eighteenth-Century Studies, 45, no. 2 (2012), 335-36.

Critical review of Bernd Krysmanski's book which aims to turn the idea of the "good" Hogarth on its head, questions Hogarth's moralizing agendas and argues instead that he was a "bawdy hedonist," a malicious blasphemer, possibly even a pedophile. According to Grandjouan, "the author covers a large amount of material with efficacy. […] Scholars with an interest in the 'everything and anything' of Hogarthian scholarship may well find the publication useful."


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Sean Shesgreen, "Hogarth's Hidden Parts: Satiric Allusion, Erotic Wit, Blasphemous Bawdiness and Dark Humour in Eighteenth-Century English Art by Bernd W. Krysmanski", The Scriblerian, 45, no. 2 (Spring 2013), 260-262.

Another review of Krysmanski's book. According to Shesgreen, "Hogarth's Hidden Parts is a volume of immense scholarship, based on exhaustive and thoughtful readings in the literature of art and social history (…). It is also a study of great breadth, both in the works Mr. Krysmanski analyzes and in the themes he treats, making it a small encyclopedia on Hogarth (as weIl as on his aesthetic and literary relationships). It is particularly strong in locating Hogarth in the context of European art […]; in all, the volume offers 304 images, some of them arcane and difficult to find. The book is carefully and exhaustively indexed […]. In all these respects, Hogarth's Hidden Parts stands as a lively, iconoclastic commentary that must be consulted and reckoned with by any serious art historian."


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Katherine Mannheimer, "Indexing the Indecorous in the Life and Work of William Hogarth", The Eighteenth Century, 54, no. 4 (Winter 2013), 559-564.

Review of the same volume. According to Mannheimer, "the book provides a treasure trove of raw material for scholars interested in the changing perceptions of sex, gender, and the body; the impact of urbanization, commodification, and secularization; and the intersection of high and low culture in the eighteenth century. […] Krysmanski's project of aggregating his motifs systematically, and of displaying them alongside other examples of the same motif (taken both from within and from outside Hogarth's own body of work) - in addition to his discovery (promised in the title) of hitherto unnoticed details - can result, at many points, in real revelations."


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Angela Rosenthal, "Robert W. Jones, Gender and the Formation of Taste in Eighteenth-Century Britain: The Analysis of Beauty, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998," CAA [College Art Association] Reviews, 2000.

Review of a book which deals with eighteenth-century theories of beauty, among them Hogarth's.


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Laura J. Gorfkle, "Paulson, Ronald, Don Quixote in England: The Aesthetics of Laughter, Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998", Cervantes: Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America, 19, no. 1 (1999), 145-49.

Review of Paulson's book which includes a chapter on Hogarth's Don Quixote illustrations and also discusses some other of his works.


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Peter M. Briggs, "Paulson, Ronald, Don Quixote in England: The Aesthetics of Laughter", Bryn Mawr Review of Comparative Literature, 1, no. 1 (Summer 1999).

Another review of Paulson's Don Quixote book.


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David Bindman, "Putting history into art history: on 18th-century British Art: Recent scholarship examines the social context", The Art Newspaper, 8 July 2016.

Review of David Solkin's Art in Britain 1660-1815 (Yale University Press, 2015).


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Michael Dirda, "Beyond Lace and Frills", Washington Post, 9 November 1997.

Review of John Brewer, The Pleasures of the Imagination: English Culture in the Eighteenth Century, New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1997. See also the Online version of Chapter One of Brewer's book.


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James Hopkin, "Mungo the master", Guardian Unlimited, 22 May 1999.

Review of David Dabydeen's novel, A Harlot's Progress.








COURSE DESCRIPTIONS, LECTURE RESOURCES, AND SOME OTHER EDUCATIONAL SITES:




Bonita Billman, William Hogarth and his World: 4 Sessions.
Outline of a course on Hogarth which may furnish some ideas for preparing similar academic courses.


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Tate Britain: Hogarth teachers' pack.

Excellent teacher and student notes by Kirstie Beaven, including downloadable full colour A4 images with introductory information, discussion points, links and activities.


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Silk, Squalor & Scandal: Hogarth's London at the Cuming Museum.

Short education resource pack intended as an introduction to the exhibition, "Silk, Squalor & Scandal, Hogarth's London" and some of its themes.


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Hogarth's Eighteenth Century.

Course around the work of William Hogarth by Amy Witherbee, Department of English, Boston College. Students are asked to look beyond the apparent moral or purpose of Hogarth's works to find, identify, and explore the signifiers with which these works are packed. The course is structured in four units: "All the world’s a stage," "Adventure, commodity, and excess," "What kind of race?" and "On being committed: marriage and other institutions."


* * *



Clifford Armion, "La narrativité des 'progresses': Marriage à-la-mode", La Clé des Langues (Lyon).

French commentaries and questions concerning the Marriage A-la-Mode series. Part of an excellent Hogarth project by Clifford Armion, Professor of English at the Université de Lyon. "The primary aim of this project is to facilitate access to William Hogarth's works on the web and to create a coherent database for teachers and researchers."


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HIS3118: Hogarth! The artist and his life in Georgian London 1697-1764.

Module representing a detailed investigation of the life and art of William Hogarth (1697-1764). Module leader: Professor Jeremy Boulton.


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Maureen Harkin, Literary and Visual Culture in Eighteenth-Century Britain (incorporating a special unit on Women and the Visual Arts in Eighteenth-Century Britain).

Detailed description of an ASECS course which began "with Hogarth's prints, focusing on his visual style, his sense of his own and a general British ambivalence in relation to continental painterly traditions, and the way the prints 'read' ".


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Emergence of Art Market in Eighteenth Century Britain.

Some individual contributions dealing with the emergence of the art market in eighteenth-century Britain through the work of Hogarth. Part of a website created by the Art Market wiki team, Cornell University.


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English for art historians: William Hogarth, The Marriage Settlement.

Guidelines for an analysis of the painting and how to organise a commentary. See also William Hogarth, Self-portrait; William Hogarth, Marriage A-la-Mode, plate II, William Hogarth, Gin Lane, brush up your prepositions and Training for the exam L1.


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The University of Arizona Museum of Art: ART/WRITE - William Hogarth.

Short biography and history plus writing exercises that apply the persuasive techniques used today in analyzing contemporary editorial cartoons to Hogarth's Marriage A-la-Mode series.


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Philip Gambone, Satire in the 18th Century.

Part 6 of a Boston University Academy curriculum project deals with William Hogarth, particularly with his Rake’s Progress series.


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Christina Payne and Harry Mount: British Art from Hogarth to Turner.

Student research at the School of Humanities, Oxford Brookes University, in order to write "an in-depth, 2500-word, essay on a single picture of your choice".


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Tradition and Modernity.

Course at the Department of Art History and Theory, University of Essex, introducing to the study of art history at university level through an examination of the visual arts of 18th century England (and France).


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Ruth Fleischmann, INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH PAINTING.

Course for MA or BA students at the University of Bielefeld (Summer 2005), offering a survey of English painting from the Middle Ages to the present. Hogarth is discussed as an Enlightenment artist.


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Viktoria Schmidt-Linsenhoff, William Hogarth.

Brief information about a German seminar on Hogarth at the University of Trier (Summer 1999).


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Sabine Mainberger: Medienwechsel und Kulturtransfer: Hogarth - Lichtenberg.

Reference to a German seminar on Hogarth and Lichtenberg at the Freie Universität Berlin (Summer 2001).


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National Portrait Gallery: Education: Distance Learning: Canvas & Stretcher: William Hogarth's self-portrait.

Interesting educational site on the measurements of Hogarth's self-portrait of c. 1757 in the National Portrait Gallery, London.


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Hogarth and His Times: Serious Comedy: A Guide for Students Recommended for grades 7-12.

Site created by the University of California, Berkeley Art Museum. Looks at some of Hogarth's prints showing alcoholic abuse, poverty, mental illness, and political corruption. Encourages the viewer to consider how Hogarth's perspective compares with the ways we look at the same things nowadays.


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Perspective: Hogarth: Beer Street and Gin Lane.

Shows that "Beer Street puts into practice the rules of perspective", whereas in Gin Lane "two conflicting perspective schemes regulate the middle distance in a criss-cross pattern".


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Glendon Mellow, "Find All the Absurdities!", Scientific American, 31 March 2013.

Invitation to spot all errors in Hogarth's Satire on False Perspective.


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Hogarth Description.

Professor Richard Parker's instructions in writing a substantial paragraph on Hogarth's Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn. Part of an educational site on Advanced Composition for students of English at Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania.


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SBL Forum: Frank Ritchel Ames, "Critical Methods and Guarded Minds".

Article using Hogarth's The Graham Children to introduce critical methods of "biblical criticism".


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Louvre: William Hogarth (1697-1764), The Graham Children.

Some interesting questions about the children depicted in Hogarth's painting.


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William Warner, Lecture Resources: Hogarth and the Market.

Part of "Enlightenment Communications in England and America" (University of California, Santa Barbara, Winter 2000). Images of A Harlot's Progress and Marriage A-la-Mode plus three keys to Hogarth's success with his Progress pieces in outline. Gives additional information about the moral rhetoric of Hogarth's Progresses according to Henry Fielding.


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Leighton Carter, "Hogarth and Fielding's New Genre in the Middle Ground".

Some questions about Hogarth's and Henry Fielding's new type of visual and written description, called "comic history".


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Falsche Perspektive.

German description of the mistakes in perspective within Hogarth's Satire on False Perspective.


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Hogarth's Print Sequences.

Some Web pages and books on Hogarth recommended for students of English. Resource list by Professor Richard Davies, Acadia University, Canada.


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Franck Loiseau, Documents pour la classe: Marriage à la Mode (1743-45) - William Hogarth.

French remarks on Hogarth's Marriage A-la-Mode series plus some questions in English for use in schools.


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Primary Teachers' Notes: 'The Graham Children' by William Hogarth (1697-1764).

PDF file including useful background information about the The Graham Children and the artist as well as some suggestions on using the painting in the primary classroom, ideas for activities and cross-curricular links.


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Take One Picture: An Exhibition of Work by Primary Schools Based on Hogarth's 'The Graham Children'.

Exhibition of children's work based on Hogarth's The Graham Children, National Gallery, London, 5 May - 12 August 2001. See also this page and the students' work inspired by Hogarth's painting.








MISCELLANEOUS:




Literature and painting in England (CTU de Nancy 2).
Excerpts from a very extensive Web page by Jean-Louis Claret on English literature and painting. Includes chapters on the eighteenth century. The latter contains an interesting section on Hogarth. Text in English.


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Reading Hogarth. By Ronald Paulson. Reply by Richard Dorment. New York Review of Books, 7 October 1993.

Letters in response to "An Exchange on Hogarth", New York Review of Books, 12 August 1993.


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Valentina-Andreea Dimulescu, "The Masters of English Painting: Hogarth - Gainsborough - Constable".

Short history of British art by a Romanian author, primarily dealing with the Rococo period and Romanticism and with the lives and works of William Hogarth, Thomas Gainsborough and John Constable.


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artelino - The Magic of Art: William Hogarth (1697-1764).

Short account of the artist's life and work plus some remarks on "Collecting William Hogarth Prints". There is also a German version of the same page.


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In Development: William Hogarth Prints: Lifetime Editions & Print States.

On the changes that appear on different states of Hogarth's prints.


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Austin Dobson, De Libris: Prose and Verse (1908).

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Dobson's De Libris: Prose and Verse. Includes many details on Hogarth and some of his contemporaries, such as John Wilkes, Alexander Pope and Jean André Rouquet, in the chapters "On Some Books And Their Associations", "Bramston's 'Man Of Taste' " and "M. Rouquet On The Arts", etc.


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Catherine Imperatore, "Femininity, Materialism and Class in Eighteenth Century England".

Includes an interpretation of the disintegration and moral depravity of the materialistic couple in Hogarth's Marriage A-la-Mode.


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Henry Fielding, Preface to Joseph Andrews (1742).

Identifies Hogarth as a comic history painter and argues that the low genre of caricature is greatly inferior to the true comedy of manners, to which both Fielding and Hogarth aspired.


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Apocalypse Press: William Hogarth.

Printseller's commentaries on Hogarth's Enthusiasm Delineated, Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism, The Four Times of the Day, and the Distressed Poet.


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Lüder H. Niemeyer, "Here even the End comes to an End: Indestructible though the two Cones for the "Analysis of Beauty": One of these here for the first Time."

Part of a German art dealer's commercial Web site. Includes some heavily textured commentaries on Hogarth's Tail Piece, or The Bathos (1764) and an annotated list of copies after this print. There is also a German version of the same page.


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Neil Emmerson, "I Lost my Ass: Jeff Gibson, KUNST Gallery, Sydney, Nov-Dec, 1995."

Compares Hogarth's Rake's Progress series with Jeff Gibson's show of a series of 10, 3-coloured screen prints, 3 short video pieces and another 3 larger format, multi-coloured screen prints. Both artists reflect contemporary constructions of masculinity, "share ideas about popular culture, marketability and both use didactic strategies; albeit Hogarth's intention was to instruct while Gibson's is to confound".


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William Hogarth, 1697-1764.

Part of the Spiritual Growth Resource, John Wesley: Holiness of Heart and Life. Deals with Hogarth's attitudes towards Methodism from a modern Wesleyan point of view. Includes some brief remarks on Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism.


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Artists' Papers Register: William Hogarth (1697-1764).

List of museums and libraries holding important manuscript papers written by, or concerning, Hogarth. Part of a location register of the papers of artists, designers and craftsmen held in publicly accessible collections in the United Kingdom.


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The British Library: Explore Archives and Manuscripts.

Enter the name, "Hogarth (William)" and click on the "Search" button. Then you will see a list of British Library manuscripts written by, or relating to, Hogarth.


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About the Hogarth Collections at the Lewis Walpole Library.

On the Hogarth collections at the Lewis Walpole Library, Farmington, CT, that were formed by W.S. Lewis and Annie Burr Auchincloss Lewis following on their primary interest in Horace Walpole (1717-1797), who himself had been an enthusiastic collector of Hogarth.


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Hogarth's Marriage Licence Allegation from the Vicar-General's Office.

Presents the original marriage licence allegation dated 20 March 1728 for William Hogarth and Jane Thornhill plus some additional commentary.


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Hogarth's closing words of a letter to his wife, 6 June, 1749.

Quoted in A.M. Broadley, Chats on Autographs (1910).


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University of Delaware Library: Special Collections Department: William Hogarth Engravings, 1732-1808.

List of thirteen engravings by, or after, Hogarth, plus a very short biographical note. Each of the prints in this collection "is crudely hand-colored using a bright palette. Because of the poor quality of the coloring, it is possible that the coloring was not comtemporary with the prints, but was done later."


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A2A database: William Hogarth.

Search result from the Access to Archives database which contains catalogues describing archives held throughout England and dating from the 900s to the present day. Type in "William Hogarth" and click on the red "search" button.


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Professor Dr Hans Weder, "Die sogenannte 'Line of Beauty and Grace'": Eine Überlegung zum Leben und zur Wissenschaft [Dies Academicus 2000].

Lengthy academic speech by the rector of the University of Zurich on the importance of the "Line of Beauty and Grace" and the Kairos to nature, scientific research and human culture.


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Peter Forbes, "Beauty lies in an eye of scientific curves", The Age, 15 August 2002.

Article first published in the Guardian, 11 July, 2002, as "The beauty of curves". Briefly discusses whether there is a science of beauty. Also deals with the importance of curves in visual art. Includes some remarks on Hogarth's "Line of Beauty".


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18. u. 19. Jahrhundert.

Web page for the Vienna Academy, written in German. Deals with eighteenth and nineteenth-century graffiti. Includes remarks on Hogarth's The Invasion and on a caricature by Steve Bell based on Hogarth's O the Roast Beef of Old England.


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Museum of London: Creative Quarters: William Hogarth.

Short information on Hogarth's London dwellings.


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Hogarth's House in Chiswick, Hogarth Lane, Great West Road, London, W4 2QN.

Brief information on Hogarth's House, a beautiful relic of his era, though damaged by bombing during the war, it has been carefully restored by the local council. See also this page on Hogarth's House..


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The Museum of St. Bartholomew's Hospital.

Traces the history of St. Bartholomew's Hospital from 1123 until the present day. Includes some remarks on Hogarth's two stunning murals on the walls of the staircase of the hospital, one depicting the Good Samaritan and the other Christ healing the lame man at the pool of Bethesda.


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Hogarth Court EC3.

Formerly part a Geocities Web site on the history of the streets of London. Hogarth Court was a relative newcomer to the London street scene. It used to be called Fishmonger Alley until 1936 when the authorities seized on a little piece of history connecting William Hogarth with the adjacent Elephant Tavern. Includes some additional remarks on Hogarth's London life.


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Hogarth, William: painter, graphical artist: England.

Some short biographical notes plus an image of William Hogarth's tomb at St. Nicholas' Churchyard, Chiswick Mall, Chiswick, London.


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Hogarth's Grave in Chiswick, The Independent, 24 March 1995.

Article by Andrew John Davies on Hogarth and his tomb.


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Museum of London: BEDLAM.

Some remarks on Hogarth's image of Bedlam. Part of the online exhibition "Bedlam: Custody Care and Cure 1247-1997".


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Roast Beef of Old England.

On the song The Roast Beef of Old England. Words and music by Richard Leveridge, 1735.


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History Of The Pug.

On the long, dignified history of the pug. Hogarth's depiction of pugs is mentioned in passing.


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Jessica Richard, Arts of Play: The Culture of Gambling in Eighteenth-Century Britain.

Dissertation abstract. Includes some remarks on Hogarth's A Rake's Progress, plate 6, his Assembly at Wanstead House, and The Lady's Last Stake.


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Martin Wainwright, "Britons take to the bottle". Guardian Unlimited, 1 April 1999.

Summary of Professor John Chartres's remarks on the history of spirit drinking. "The artist William Hogarth was enlisted to etch the equivalent of Department of Health posters comparing the nightmare world of Gin Lane to cheery Beer Street, where only the pawnbrokers shop is falling down."


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William Hogarth at Vauxhall Gardens: sex, art, music.

On Jonathan Tyers's Vauxhall Gardens. With Hogarth's help, these pleasure gardens became egalitarian spaces where the middle classes could mix with the intelligentsia and the minor nobility and amuse themselves in supper boxes, decorated with contemporary paintings and sculptures.


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Mother Needham.

Newspaper reports on Mother Needham, the notorious bawd who, in the first scene of Hogarth's Harlot's Progress, recruits a country girl for her brothel.


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The Georgian Underworld: Prostitution.

Chapter 15 of The Georgian Underworld by Rictor Norton deals with prostitution in eighteenth-century London. It includes a section on Mother Needham.


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The Rabbit Woman.

Contemporary newspaper articles on Mary Toft, the "pretended rabbit breeder" whom Hogarth satirized in his print Cunicularii.


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Dennis Todd, "New Evidence for Dr. Arbuthnot's Authorship of 'The Rabbit-Man-Midwife'", Studies in Bibliography, 41 (1988), 247-67.

On the authorship of The Rabbit-Man-Midwife, a short poem poking fun at some of the men involved in the affair of Mary Toft.


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Dirk Puehl, "Über John Bullishness – Oh, the Roastbeef of Old England".

German paper on eating and drinking in eighteenth-century London. Includes subchapters on Gin Lane and Beer Street.


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Quelques caricaturistes étrangers: Hogarth - Cruikshank - Goya - Pinelli - Brueghel.

French page on foreign caricaturists. Starts with a brief analysis of Hogarth's art.


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Eighteenth Century England: A Site Created by and for Literature Students at the University of Michigan.

In-depth information on several aspects of the eighteenth century. Includes illustrations by Hogarth and other eighteenth-century artists. See Title Index of Student Projects and particularly the sites, Exploring Eighteenth Century England with William Hogarth and Comic Art in Eighteenth-Century England.


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The Trial of 2 centuries: Public Execution - A Tale of Two Centuries.

Includes a short note on, and reproductions of, Hogarth's Four Stages of Cruelty.


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Carl Heinrich Rahl (1779-1843): Der Weg eines Liederlichen (um 1818).

German notes on Carl Heinrich Rahl's 62 etchings after Hogarth's prints, particularly the first scene of A Rake's Progress, kept at the Ostfriesisches Landesmuseum, Emder Rüstkammer.


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Jonathan Jones, "Take the ego out of art: Simon Rattle is right - Britain has a lot to learn from the high seriousness of Germany's cultural life", Guardian Unlimited, 26 August, 2002.

Compares Simon Rattle, the British conductor, with Hogarth's Enraged Musician.


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Jonathan Jones, "Tate Modern gets a million visitors in just six weeks. Meanwhile, at poor old Tate Britain...", Guardian Unlimited, 28 June 2000.

Article on the unfashionable national collection of British art shown at the Tate Britain. Includes brief remarks on some of Hogarth's paintings.


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Rhian Harris, "The Foundling Hospital", BBC History.

Notes on the Foundling Hospital. Includes a section on "Artists and the Foundling Hospital".


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The Foundling Museum: William Hogarth.

Brief information on Hogarth and his works in the Foundling Museum.


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Coram: Our Heritage.

Web site on one of England's oldest children's charities which was supported by Hogarth and became a centre of eighteenth-century philanthropy.


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Maev Kennedy, "Grant saves Hogarth's take on The Tempest", Guardian Unlimited, 14 November, 2002.

Reports that A Scene from 'The Tempest' by Hogarth, under threat of being sold from the walls of the Yorkshire house, has been saved by a grant from the Art Fund charity.


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Maev Kennedy, "Art victory secures charity collections", Guardian Unlimited, 14 June, 2002.

Reports that Hogarth's painting of The March to Finchley was acquired for the new Foundling Museum, London, for £4m.


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Alison Benjamin, "A brush with history: Tate unveils painting celebrating Coram children's charity", Guardian Unlimited, 16 October, 2002.

On the Tate's unveiling of the large, montage-style painting, donated to the Coram Family by artist Rosa Branson, which shows the establishment of the London Foundling Hospital in 1739.


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Roy Porter, "The Body Politic Diseases and Discourses", History Today, 51, no. 10 (October 2001), 23 ff.

One of the last papers written by the late Professor Roy Porter. Shows how eighteenth-century satirical images of the medical profession spilled over into the work of political caricaturists. Explains, for instance, that the medical profession was seen as quackery - a point William Hogarth epitomised in The Company of Undertakers - and medicine as a theatre of cruelty, which is is supremely expressed in The Reward of Cruelty.


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Max Stafford-Clark, "The man who saved the stage", Guardian Unlimited, 5 October, 2002.

Tells how the first modern actor David Garrick put theatre at the heart of culture. Contains some passages on Hogarth.


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Wikipedia: James Thornhill.

Short account of the life and art of Sir James Thornhill, Hogarth's father-in-law.


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Dorset Magazine: In the Footsteps of ..... James Thornhill.

More detailed account of the life and work of the Dorset-born artist, Sir James Thornhill.


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David Brown, "Statues effaced by acid clean", Guardian Unlimited, 23 October, 2002.

On the bad condition of the busts of Isaac Newton, William Hogarth, Joshua Reynolds, and the surgeon John Hunter, which have maintained a distinguished watch over Leicester Square in central London for almost 130 years and have now succumbed to a cleaner's brush.


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William Hogarth and his Pug Dog: Hogarth statue to be provided with canine companion.

Reports that Hogarth will be commemorated in a fine statue by Jim Mathieson. It will be un-veiled in Chiswick High Road, "a short walk from the artist's summer home, which is now a museum in his memory". For the story of the campaign, see, in addition, Of Hogarth, Hockney and the Culture Minister....


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Gin Lane - a Hogarth Inspired Doll's House.

Documents the progress of a doll's house inspired by the interiors of some of Hogarth's works.








SOME EXCERPTS FROM THE FORTHCOMING

Hogarth Bibliography

(The following is a randomised selection of entries.)


The Analysis of Beauty:

  • "The analysis of beauty, By Wm Hogarth", The Gentleman's Magazine, XXIII (December 1753), 593. [The author of this short review states that the book "will gratify the imagination of those who read merely for amusement, by the variety of sentiment and examples that it contains; it will certainly instruct the artificer; and in many parts, it will enlighten the moralist, and assist the philosopher".]

  • Amal Asfour / Paul Williamson, "Splendid Impositions: Gainsborough, Berkeley, Hume", Eighteenth-Century Studies, 31, no. 4 (1998), 403-32. [Deals with Hogarth's thoughts on ways of keeping the eye moving around a painting.]

  • Michael Ayrton (ed.), Hogarth's Drawings, Notes on the Plates by Bernard Denvir, London: Avalon Press, 1948, 10-11, 84, 85, nos. 68-71. [On some studies for plate I of the Analysis of Beauty, among them drawings of hip bones.]

  • Michel Baridon, "Hogarth's 'living machines of nature' and the theorization of aesthetics", paper read on 5 April 1997 on the occasion of William Hogarth: A Tercentenary Symposium held at the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, Los Angeles, 4-5 April, 1997. [A discussion of Hogarth as theorist of the rococo in The Analysis of Beauty. Shows that a close study of the text contradicts Waterhouse's disparaging comments. Suggests, in addition, that Hogarth's aesthetic criteria, "fitness" in particular, introduce a direct relation between Newtonian science and art.]

  • James Beattie, Essays: On the Nature and Immutability of Truth, in Opposition to Sophistry and Scepticism; On Poetry and Music as they affect the Mind; On Laughter, and Ludicrous Composition; On the Utility of Classical Learning, Edinburgh, 1772. Further editions: Edinburgh, 1776 and 1778, London and Edinburgh, 1779. [The "Essay on Laughter, and Ludicrous Composition" discusses the modes of combination by which incongruous qualities may be presented to the eye or to the fancy in order to provoke laughter. On page 608 is a passage on Plate 2 of The Analysis of Beauty: "A country dance of men and women, like those exhibited by Hogarth in his Analysis of Beauty, could hardly fail to make a beholder merry, whether he believed their union to be the effect of design or accident. Most of those persons have incongruities of their own in their shape, dress, or attitude, and all of them are incongruous in respect of one another; thus far the assemblage displays contrariety or want of relation: and they are all united in the same dance; and thus far they are mutually related. And if we suppose the two elegant figures removed, which might be done without lessening the ridicule, we should not easily discern any contrast of dignity and meanness in the group that remains."]

  • Ilaria Bignamini / Martin Postle, The Artist's Model: Its Role in British Art from Lely to Etty, University Art Gallery, Nottingham, 30 April-31 May 1991, The Iveagh Bequest, Kenwood, 19 June-31 August 1991, 15 [on Hogarth's description of the human skin]; 62, no. 37 [on The Analysis of Beauty, Plate 1]; 78, no. 64 [on Paul Sandby's anti-Hogarth caricature, Pugg's Graces etched from his original daubing].

  • David Bindman, "Am I not a man and a brother?: British art and slavery in the eighteenth century", Res, no. 26 (Autumn 1994), 71. [On Hogarth's argument "that 'blackness' was literally skin-deep, caused by different colored juices that flow through the cutis, or underskin".]

  • Ulrike Bolte, Deformität als Metapher: Ihre Bedeutung und Rezeption im England des 18. Jahrhunderts, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, New York, Paris, Vienna: Peter Lang, 1993 [Europäische Hochschulschriften, Series XXVIII: Kunstgeschichte, Vol. 187], 22 ff., 36-37, 47-48, 149, 171-72, 196. [Discusses the "unfit" or "deformed" as seen by Hogarth in his treatise. Also mentions the differences between Hogarth's and Edmund Burke's aesthetics.]

  • E[benezer] Cobham Brewer, Dictionary of Phrase and Fable: Giving the Derivation, Source, or Origin of Common Phrases, Allusions, and Words that have a Tale to tell, new edition, revised, corrected and enlarged, to which is added a concise Bibliography of English Literature, London, New York: Cassell and Company, 1897. [Includes an entry on the "Line of Beauty". Says that Mengs was of the same opinion as Hogarth, but thought the curve "should be more serpentine. Of course, these fancies are not tenable, for the line which may be beautiful for one object would be hideous in another. What would Hogarth have said to a nose or mouth which followed his line of beauty?"]


Beer Street and Gin Lane:

  • Diana George, "William Hogarth's Moral Message: The Politics of Eighteenth-Century Middle-Class Reality", in Frederick M. Keener / Susan E. Lorsch (eds.), Eighteenth-Century Women and the Arts, Conference, Hofstra University, 10-12 October 1985, New York, London: Greenwood, 1988, 184. [Sees "both gender prejudices and class prejudices working together" in Gin Lane. Interprets, in addition, the "debauched woman allowing her infant son to fall to his death" as an evil, "wickedly debauched madonna".]

  • Mark Hallett, The Spectacle of Difference: Graphic Satire in the Age of Hogarth, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1999, 195, 197-222, 223, 233, 236. [Thorough discussion of the two prints with special reference to the urban prospect. Argues "that Gin Lane demands to be understood not only as a vehicle of reformist polemic but also in terms of the functions and traditions of graphic satire".]

  • Fiona Haslam, "Hogarth and the Art of Alcohol Abuse", Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 22 (1992), 74-80. [Shows that Hogarth's prints Beer Street and Gin Lane formed part of a general attempt to reimpose legislation on the sale of spirits at this time. Hogarth compares the two scenes; in the former, traditional English beer forms part of the life of a well-ordered society whereas the consumption of gin, as in the latter scene, leads to the total disintegration of society. Hogarth presents alcoholism as a social, economic and ethical problem.]

  • "Hogarth and His Works - No. XI", Penny Magazine of The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge [London], 4 (28 February 1835), 81-88. [Includes an important nineteenth-century account of the problems of drunkenness, overlooked by most modern scholars.]

  • E. Dudley H. Johnson, "The Making of Ford Madox Brown's Work", in Ira Bruce Nadel / F. S. Schwarzbach (eds.), Victorian Artists and the City: A Collection of Critical Essays, Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press, 1980, 142-51. [Hogarth's Beer Street is seen as the underlying design of Ford Madox Brown's Work.]

  • Robert Katz, "A Dickens Legacy", Dickens Quarterly [Amherst, MA], 6, no. 2 (June 1989), 66-68. [On the prints of Beer Street and Gin Lane which the author acquired in 1982 and "which on later examination appeared to be the only known survivors of the famous collection of William Hogarth engravings owned by Charles Dickens".]

  • John Nichols, Biographical Anecdotes of William Hogarth, and a Catalogue of his Works chronologically arranged, with occasional Remarks, 2nd edn, London: Printed by and for J. Nichols, 1782, 50, 247-50, 451. [States that Horace Walpole is mistaken in his observation that, in Beer Street, "the variation of the butcher lifting the Frenchman in his hand, was an afterthought. ... This butcher is in reality a blacksmith; and the violent hyperbole is found in the original drawing, as well as in the earliest impressions of the plate. ... The painter, who ... is copying a bottle from one hanging by him as a pattern, has been regarded as a stroke of satire on John Stephen Liotard, who (as Mr. Walpole abserves) 'could render nothing but what he saw before his eyes.' It is probable that Hogarth received the first idea for these two prints from a pair of others by Peter Breugel (commonly called Breugel d'enfer, or Hellish Breugel), which exhibit a contrast of a similar kind. The one is entitled La grasse, the other La maigre Cuisine." Adds that the latter "exhibits the figures of an emaciated mother and child, sitting on a straw-mat upon the ground, whom I never saw without thinking on the female, &c. in Gin Lane. In Hogarth, the fat English blacksmith is insulting the gaunt Frenchman; and in Breugel, the plump cook is kicking the lean one out of doors".]

  • E. Paditz, "Darstellung alkoholgeschädigter Kinder in der Bildenden Kunst bei William Hogarth und Jakob Jordaens - ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Alkoholismus und der Alkoholembryopathie", Kinderärztliche Praxis [Leipzig], 54, no. 1 (January 1986), 39-47, particularly 42-45. [On the depiction of alcohol-damaged children in the art of Hogarth and Jakob Jordaens - a contribution to the history of alcoholism and alcoholic embryopathy. Discovers typical dysmorphic signs on faces associated with alcoholic embryopathy in three Hogarth prints: Gin Lane, Night, and A Country Inn Yard at Election Time.]


Marriage A-la-Mode:

  • Joseph Burke, "Ronald Paulson, The Art of Hogarth, London, Phaidon, 1975", RACAR: Revue d'art canadienne, Canadian Art Review, 4, no. 1 (1977), 48-49. [This book review includes a detailed interpretation of Marriage A-la-Mode, Plate 3, proceeding on the assumption that the angry woman is not a procuress but "a practising prostitute. Hogarth invariably follows the contemporary practice of distinguishing between Madams and harlots by dressing the former soberly and with dignity, as if matrons on their way to church, and the latter in their service uniform of lace and a brightly coloured apron." Thus the subject of Plate 3 "is not the health of the young girl, but that of the Earl himself. He has summoned the two to the doctor to find which has infected him. Like Solomon, he discovers the truth by an ingenious trick, worked out in advance with the doctor, who polishes his glasses as if preparing to conduct an examination. In fact the syphilitic Earl and the elderly doctor, even together, are no match for the tall and magnificently developed harlot in a trial of force. She falls, however, into the trap and furiously opens a clasp-knife to prevent examination, while the innocent girl continues to weep. The doctor grins and the Earl, who displays the medicine he has been forced to take and presumably share with his younger mistress, and at the same time raises his cane in a threatening gesture, looks searchingly at the enraged harlot."]

  • Werner Busch, "Hogarths Marriage A-la-Mode: Zur Dialektik von Detailgenauigkeit und Vieldeutigkeit", in 'Marriage A-la-Mode' - Hogarth und seine deutschen Bewunderer, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Nationalgalerie - Altes Museum, Berlin, 18 December 1998-28 February 1999, Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie Frankfurt am Main, 25 March-20 June 1999, exh. cat., ed. Martina Dillmann and Claude Keisch, Berlin, 1998, 70-83. [Offers different readings ("Lektürevorschläge") of Scenes 1 and 5. Suggests, pp. 80-81, that the main motif in Scene 5 alludes to Rembrandt's Descent from the Cross (Ermitage, St Petersburg, formerly Walpole collection).]

  • CANTIANUS, Gentleman's Magazine, LIX, 1 (1789), 391-92. [On Edward Swallow, butler to Archbishop Herring, who may be seen "in the figure of the Old Steward, in plate II, of Marriage à la Mode". See also the reply by "W. & D." (i.e. the Rev. Samuel Denne) in the Gentleman's Magazine, LIX, 2 (1789), 628.]

  • Vincent Carretta, "Petticoats in Power: Catherine the Great in British Political Cartoons", 1650-1850: Ideas, Aesthetics, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era, 1 (1993), 23-106. [Briefly mentions the depiction of Judith and Holofernes in the first plate as a part of the ambivalent visual traditions of representing strong women that underlay British satirical treatments of Catherine the Great.]

  • A Catalogue of the Pictures in the National Gallery, Pall Mall, London, 1824, 3, nos. 1-6. [First National Gallery catalogue mentioning Hogarth's paintings.]

  • George Colman / David Garrick, The Clandestine Marriage, London: T. Becket & P. A. De Hondt; Edinburgh: R. Fleming; Dublin: G. Faulkner; Dublin: Printed for A. Leathley, J. Hoey, Sen. P. Wilson, J. Exshaw, E. Watts, H. Saunders, J. Hoey, Jun. W. Sleater, and S. Watson, 1766. [This play is a comic retelling of the first scene of Hogarth's Marriage A-la-Mode. See also Helmut E. Gerber, "The Clandestine Marriage and its Hogarthian Associations", Modern Language Notes, 72 (1957), 267-71.]

  • Sidney Colvin, "From Rigaud to Reynolds: Characteristics of French and English Painting in the 18th Century, IX. - William Hogarth (1697-1764)", The Portfolio, 3 (1872-73), 152-53. [Mentions that Heinrich Heine "speaks of the paintings of the 'Marriage à la Mode' as being the most inharmonious display, the worst assemblage of crying colours in the world. When we find Heine in the next page enthusiastic over the colouring of Paul Delaroche in his 'Deathbed of Mazarin' and other works, we feel that he must be speaking partly in carelessness and partly in natural disqualification."]







A FURTHER SUGGESTION



For those thousands of further references to the numerous valuable essays on Hogarth, which have appeared in many different languages in journals from all over the world during the past three centuries; and for other indispensible sources and publications, the reader should consult the forthcoming, annotated, two-volume Hogarth Bibliography by the author of this Web site.


All success in your work!


Read on, please ...
William Hogarth, 'Tailpiece' (1761)
Further Internet Links


For secondary sources on Hogarth, two search tools are recommended for their excellent results:


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Search result: "Hogarth"

Current publications on Hogarth. Compiled, edited, and made webready by Kevin Berland. Lists the result from the Eighteenth-Century Resources search engine by Jack Lynch and Mike Burns. (Includes, however, some misprints.)

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kubikat: Union Catalogue / Art Libraries Network Florence - Munich - Paris - Rome

German specialists' search tool. Very useful to all art historians who are looking for recent publications on Hogarth (and other artists) in books, journals, exhibition catalogues, Festschriften, and the like. For a basic search, type in "Hogarth, William" and click on the "Search" button. Then you will see the full list of Hogarth sources.






For several other current and older sources, see also the search result for "William Hogarth" given by the Royal Historical Society Bibliography of British and Irish History. Unfortunately, this is no longer a free online service. To provide a secure long-term future for the Bibliography, the Royal Historical Society and Institute of Historical Research entered into a partnership with Brepols Publishers at the end of 2009 to continue the Bibliography as a subscription service under a new title: Bibliography of British and Irish History (BBIH).



For recent essays on Hogarth available to subscribers on the World Wide Web, try, in addition, the Project Muse's new search engine.

Type in "Hogarth, William" as a search term.



For a useful twentieth-century online bibliography on Hogarth, see further the 1998 version of The William Hogarth Archive (University of Wales, Lampeter).



You should also try two of the best general search engines:

Google

Gigablast

Type in a few descriptive words such as "Hogarth", "William Hogarth", "Paulson +Hogarth", "Hogarth +painting +Paulson", "+Hogarth +Reynolds", or "Rake's Progress +Hogarth -Stravinsky -opera -music", and click on the Search button. You will be agreeably surprised at the result.

You may also try other common search engines and directories such as Answers, AOL Search, Ask Jeeves, BASE, Bing (formerly MSN Search), Britannica.com, DeeperWeb, Dogpile, DuckDuckGo, Excite, Google Scholar, HotBot, LookSmart: Find Articles, Lycos, MetaCrawler, Metager, Metager2, Metascroll, Netscape, Open Directory Project (dmoz), questia, SearchEdu, Startpage by Ixquick, Suchhaus, Teoma, Unbubble, Webcrawler, WolframAlpha, Yahoo, Yandex or Yippy (formerly Clusty). Put the search engines to the test and simply type in "Hogarth AND bibliography". Indeed, some results you get could include rather worthless stuff.



For news on Hogarth-related topics, see also Enfilade, the serial newsletter for Historians of Eighteenth-Century Art & Architecture (HECAA). For a table of useful general art history resources on the Web, see, in addition, Chris Witcombe's Art History Research Resources. For a general search of relevant eighteenth-century topics, you should try the C18-L's Selected Readings search engine. It will find single-word instances in all the available back issues of Selected Readings, the most comprehensive interdisciplinary bibliography of eighteenth-century studies on the Web. For lists of interesting eighteenth-century links, see also Jack Lynch's Eighteenth-Century Resources; some parts of Alan Liu's Voice of the Shuttle; the "18th-Century Art" section of Chris Witcombe's Art History resources on the web; the Early Modern Online Bibliography, a weblog created by Anna Battigelli and Eleanor Shevlin to facilitate scholarly feedback and discussion pertaining to valuable online text-bases for the humanities; and the Links section of William Hogarth's Realm by Shaun Wourm. See further British Art Research, a site for research about art in Britain, and The art world in Britain 1660 to 1735, which publishes primary sources and research tools for the study of the arts in Britain between the restoration of Charles II and the opening of Hogarth's St Martin's Lane Academy, viz. a biographical dictionary, a database of art sales, a topographical dictionary, a group of subject-based texts and a large checklist of works of art.

For the historical and cultural background, see London Lives 1690 to 1800 providing, in a fully digitised and searchable form, a wide range of primary sources about eighteenth-century London, with a particular focus on plebeian Londoners; Georgian London, an individual blog covering day to day trivia and the more bizarre aspects of eighteenth-century London life; Rictor Norton's Early Eighteenth-Century Newspaper Reports, a sourcebook dealing with famous criminals, love and marriage, rape, infanticide, popular amusements, suicides, quack medicines, work, poverty, religion, public order, etc.; the British Library's Georgian Britain pages offering prints, drawings and documents, as well as informative articles, which delve into the lives of the Georgians; and Eighteenth Century England, a site created by and for literature students at the University of Michigan, including an alphabetical listing of all student projects that have been completed to date. For questions of eighteenth-century clothing, see the Victoria and Albert Museum's 18th-century fashion site and the Eighteenth-Century Clothing Notebook. Last but not least, the Hogarth Family HQ may be used as an aid to anyone interested in other aspects (genealogy, etc.) of the Hogarth name.






LINKS TO ONLINE IMAGE ARCHIVES OF PAINTINGS AND PRINTS BY WILLIAM HOGARTH:



Artcyclopedia: William Hogarth.

Lists many online image archives.


Bridgeman: Art, Culture & History Images: Hogarth.

Hundreds of images by, and after, Hogarth. One of the most comprehensive picture galleries available on the Internet, including many of Hogarth's engravings and paintings, among them several hand-coloured prints.


Clifford Armion (ed.), The Works of William Hogarth, La Clé des Langues (Lyon).

Online version of The Works of William Hogarth, from the Original Plates restored by James Heath (London, 1822) including all illustrations and the accompanying commentaries by John Nichols. Part of an excellent Hogarth project by Clifford Armion, Professor of English at the Université de Lyon.


William Hogarth: The Engravings.

Most complete collection of Hogarth's engravings available on the Internet as a free pdf file, however without accompanying descriptions.


Google Images: William Hogarth.

Somewhat repetitive collection of images from a wide variety of sources.


Artsy.net: William Hogarth.

Hogarth's paintings and prints as presented by Artsy, the free online platform designed to connect users to art.


Olga's Gallery: William Hogarth.

Excellent images of Hogarth's paintings.


William Hogarth's Realm: The Gallery.

Extensive gallery


ArtUK: William Hogarth.

Paintings by, and after, Hogarth.


Maximilian Genealogy: William Hogarth (1697-1764).

Remarkable gallery of Hogarth's pictures, focusing on the paintings. The site also includes a short biography.


The Victorian Web: William Hogarth's Works.

Clickable list of many of Hogarth's prints. Brief commentaries accompany most images.


Haley & Steele: William Hogarth.

American printsellers' exhibition of many prints. However, this site is now closed. It included illustrations and descriptions of many of these prints and information about the different states and editions of Hogarth's engravings. The commentaries were provided by Edward Hammonds. For a cached version, see Haley & Steele presents: William Hogarth (cached version).


The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco: Explore the Art: William Hogarth.

Remarkable collection of Hogarth's prints. The engravings can be enlarged on the screen. Click on the images to zoom in and look at the details, or search the collections.


Collage: The London Picture Archive: Hogarth

Another collection of Hogarth's prints. Part of an image database containing 20,000 works from the Guildhall Library and Guildhall Art Gallery London. Click on an image to see more information.


Princeton University Library: William Hogarth.

Excellent large-size reproductions of The Times, Plate I, The Sleeping Congregation, The Company of Undertakers, The Five Orders of Periwigs, and Hudibras Sallying Forth.


Cartoons: British Cartoon Archive.

Contains lots of prints engraved by Thomas Cook after Hogarth. Type in the search terms.


Carol Gerten-Jackson: CGFA: Hogarth.

A dozen images of paintings by Hogarth plus the six prints of A Harlot's Progress. The original site is now to be found on Facebook.


The Fitzwilliam Museum: Collections Explorer: Hogarth.

Many prints and paintings from the collection of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, including several not currently available online.


The Art Institute of Chicago: William Hogarth.

Many prints from the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago.


The National Gallery of Art, Washington: Hogarth, William

Many prints by, and after, Hogarth from the National Gallery's collection, Washington, DC. See also this National Gallery page which lists 111 works.


Harvard Art Museums / Collection Search: Hogarth.

Many engravings from the collection of the Fogg Museum's Department of Prints.


Art in Parliament: Hogarth.

23 prints from the UK Parliament's Website.


The William Hogarth Archive, Founders' Library, University of Wales, Lampeter: The Images.

One of the most extensive image archives of Hogarth's prints on the Web. Unfortunately, all of the 126 photographs presented here are underexposed.


William Hogarth, Museum Image Collections.

List of links to several images of Hogarth's prints mainly from the collection of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco.


Royal Academy of Arts, London: William Hogarth.

Some prints from the Royal Academy's collections.


Art of the Print: Image Gallery (Hj to Hog).

Printseller's image gallery offering several prints by Hogarth, mostly taken from the nineteenth-century edition by James Heath (1822). Contains a description of each work.


The British Museum: Collection Online: Hogarth, William.

More than 2,000 prints from the Department of Prints and Drawings of the British Museum, London.


The Victoria and Albert Museum: Hogarth, William.

Many prints by Hogarth plus The Walpole Salver from the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.


Alexander Pope's Homepage: William Hogarth.

All prints of the Harlot's Progress and the Rake's Progress series plus some brief introductory remarks. Click on the pictures to enlarge.


ArtServe: Prints by Subject: Hogarth.

Extensive picture gallery presented by the Australian National University, including all images of Hogarth's narrative sequences and some other of his prints and paintings. The quality of the scans, however, is rather indifferent. See also subsequent pages.


Web Gallery of Art: Hogarth, William.

Web gallery created by Emil Kren and Daniel Marx. Presents the paintings of, and comments on, An Election Entertainment; the first two scenes of Marriage A-la-Mode; and images of the portrait of Mary Edwards; The Painter and His Pug; The Orgy from A Rake's Progress; A Scene from the 'Beggar's Opera'; the indoor painting of After; and The Strode Family. Also includes a short biography.


The National Gallery : William Hogarth.

The collection of the National Gallery, London, containing the six paintings of Marriage A-la-Mode, The Graham Children, and The Shrimp Girl.


The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, University of Oxford: Hogarth, William.

Some paintings by, and attributed to, Hogarth, such as The Theft of the Watch, The Stage Coach, or The Country Inn Yard, The Enraged Musician, The Suicide of the Countess, and The Marriage Contract.


Royal Museums Greenwich: Hogarth, William.

Paintings and prints from the collection of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, among them Captain Lord George Graham in his Cabin, Woodes Rogers and his Family, Inigo Jones and Captain Sir Alexander Schomberg.


Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery: Objects associated with William Hogarth.

Works by Hogarth from the Birmingham collection, among them the chalk drawing of a Head of a Lady, six engravings of Marriage A-la-Mode, and oil paintings of The Beggar's Opera and The Distressed Poet.


Sir John Soane's Museum: A Rake's Progress.

On the eight paintings of A Rake's Progress.


Sir John Soane's Museum: An Election.

On the four paintings of the Election series.


Sue Coe, "William Hogarth: The Four Stages of Cruelty".

Images of The Four Stages of Cruelty plus short commentaries on the prints.


World Art Treasures (Rencontre des Trésors d'Art du Monde).

Type in "Hogarth" as a search term. Images of several of Hogarth's paintings, or rather of details of the pictures, will appear, among them the eight scenes of A Rake's Progress and some portraits.


Hogarth prints at Chetham's.

Details from some Hogarth prints in the collection of Chetham's Library, Manchester.


The Indianapolis Museum of Art: Hogarth, William.

Several prints from the collection of the Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana.


Mark Harden's Artchive: William Hogarth.

Good reproductions of the prints of Beer Street, The Bruiser, John Wilkes, Esq, and The March to Finchley, plus an image of the painting of the Bedlam scene of A Rake's Progress.


Humanities Web: William Hogarth, Selected Works

Images of, and short commentaries on, some of Hogarth's paintings and prints.


William Hogarth (1697-1764).

A short account of the artist's life and work plus five illustrations: Hogarth's self-portrait of 1745, the painting of O the Roast Beef of Old England, and copies of Gin Lane, Beer Street and Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism (mistakenly titled Enthusiasm Delineated).


The Art Gallery of Greater Victoria: Hogarth

Some prints from the collection of the Art Gallery of Greater Victoria, British Columbia.


The Art Gallery of New South Wales: Hogarth.

The painting of Dr Benjamin Hoadly plus several prints from the collection of the Art Gallery of NSW, Sydney, Australia.


"Pre"history -- Hogarth.

The six prints of A Harlot's Progress plus The Five Orders of Periwigs.


ANSC100 Image Library: Hogarth, William.

The eight paintings of A Rake's Progress.


La Carrière du Roué (1735).

Images of five prints from the Rake's Progress series preserved at the Université de Liège, including French commentaries.


National Portrait Gallery: William Hogarth.

Survey of 25 portraits by Hogarth kept in the National Portrait Gallery, London.


National Museum of Wales: Hogarth, William.

The paintings of The Jones Family, A Children's Tea Party, and A House of Cards.


The Courtauld Institute of Arts: Hogarth.

Some drawings and prints from the collection of the Courtauld Institute of Arts, London.


The Currier Museum of Art, New Hampshire: Hogarth, William

The six prints of Marriage A-la-Mode, the eight prints of A Rake's Progress plus Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn.


The Visual Telling of Stories Archive: Hogarth's Narratives.

Misleading title, as only four individual prints by Hogarth are shown: Some Principal Inhabitants of the Moon, Scholars at a Lecture, Time Smoking a Picture, and Tail Piece, or The Bathos.


Room Six: William Hogarth.

Images of, and commentaries on, Hogarth's Don Quixote illustrations. Part of a Don Quixote exhibition.


The Cleveland Museum of Art: Hogarth

Eleven prints from the collection of the Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio, including several not currently available online.


Selected Hogarth Prints. Scanned by Jack Lynch.

Six hastily scanned prints by Hogarth: Gin Lane; Beer Street; The Distressed Poet; Industry and Idleness, Plate 7; The Enraged Musician; Scholars at a Lecture.


The European Enlightenment Gallery: William Hogarth.

Large-size reproductions of Plate 4 of A Harlot's Progress and Plate 11 of Industry and Idleness. Click on the small pictures to enlarge.


Hogarth (1697-1764).

Page linking to those scenes of Hogarth associated with inns and taverns.


Dulwich Picture Gallery: Hogarth.

William Hogarth, A Fishing Party.


Manchester Art Gallery: Hogarth.

Some paintings and prints, among them an oil sketch for The Pool of Bethesda and the portrait of A Gentleman.


William Hogarth, Before and After.

Outdoor and indoor scenes of Hogarth's Before and After.


The Frick Collection: William Hogarth.

The portrait of Miss Mary Edwards.


William Hogarth.

Czech Web site presenting some of Hogarth's paintings and prints.


Art Unframed: William Hogarth.

A selection of 13 images of Hogarth's paintings. Commercial Web site offering reproduction copies of any work, "hand painted in oils on Belgian canvas".


Graphic Type Ltd: The Engravings of William Hogarth CD.

Offer of 107 JPEG images of engravings for use in desktop publishing, graphic design and education. Two dozen of these can be previewed on the screen. However, most images seem to be reproduced from copies rather than Hogarth's originals.


Antique engravings and prints: William Hogarth.

Printsellers' offer of sets of nineteenth-century copies of Hogarth's prints.





LINKS TO OTHER EXCELLENT SITES DEALING WITH HOGARTH:


Shaun Wourm: William Hogarth's Realm.

One of the best and most expansive sites. Includes several interesting sections, among them the author's own MA thesis on the Industry and Idleness series, a biographical chronology, a message board and many links concerning Hogarth and eighteenth-century culture in general. Send a message or ask a question! The site is being reconstructed. See the new version of William Hogarth's Realm


Tate Britain: Hogarth Exhibition (2007): Room Guide.

Room guide to the most comprehensive exhibition of Hogarth's paintings and prints in a generation, showcasing every aspect of the artist's multi-faceted career: his remarkable paintings, ranging from elegant conversation pieces to salacious brothel scenes; his vibrant drawings and sketches; and the numerous satirical engravings for which he is most famous today.


Clifford Armion (ed.), The Works of William Hogarth, La Clé des Langues (Lyon).

Online version of The Works of William Hogarth, from the Original Plates restored by James Heath (London, 1822) including all illustrations and the accompanying commentaries by John Nichols. Part of this excellent Hogarth project by Clifford Armion, Professor of English at the Université de Lyon, are also some substantial online essays in French by Armion, Anaïs Le Fèvre-Berthelot, Isabelle Baudino and Nicole Henry. "The primary aim of this project is to facilitate access to William Hogarth's works on the web and to create a coherent database for teachers and researchers."


Humanities Web: William Hogarth.

Part of a Humanities Web site on 18th Century Art in England. Includes a "Biography" of some length; "Selected Works"; "Suggested Reading"; an Index by Period on 18th Century Narrative Painting (1750-1800); and some "Additional Resources". See also Hogarth's Legacy. There are similar pages on Thomas Gainsborough and Sir Joshua Reynolds.


Artble: William Hogarth.

Website on Hogarth, his life and work, the artistic context, his technique and his influences. Includes more detailed analyses of some of his paintings, for instance, the eight pictures of A Rake's Progress, the portrait of Captain Coram, and Sigismunda Mourning over the Heart of Guiscardo.


William Hogarth Trust: William Hogarth.

Registered charity that raises awareness and encourages understanding of William Hogarth. 


Satires of William Hogarth.

Class project on Hogarth as part of a coursework on satire in the age of Swift. Includes a biography and discussions of The Four Times of the Day, the Four Prints of an Election, two prints on religious enthusiasm, the portrait of Henry Fielding, a scene from The Rape of the Lock, the Frontispiece to The Travels of Mr. John Gulliver, The Punishment Inflicted on Lemuel Gulliver, and The South Sea Scheme.


The Victorian Web: William Hogarth's Works.

Index page about William Hogarth presented by "The Victorian Web", including a clickable list of many of Hogarth's prints. Brief commentaries accompany most images.


Angela Rosenthal (curator), William Hogarth and Eighteenth-Century Print Culture, exh., Mary and Leigh Block Gallery, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 17 April-22 June 1997.

Well-presented and informative online exhibition critically reassessing the satirical graphic work of Hogarth by highlighting a variety of eighteenth-century themes, e.g. Hogarth's deep concern with the ills of the modern city, the dignity of and the dangers faced by prostitutes, and issues of theatricality, race, class, and taste.


James Christen Steward (curator), Hogarth and His Times: Serious Comedy, Berkeley Art Museum, University of California, 1998.

Survey of the exhibition organised to celebrate the 300th anniversary of Hogarth's birth.


Exploring Eighteenth Century England with William Hogarth.

Site created by students at the University of Michigan. Deals with opposing views of the city, prostitution as a profession, art as political criticism, etc.


Allen Samuels, The William Hogarth Archive.

Contents: images of 126 prints by Hogarth; remarkable bibliographies of publications on Hogarth, Thomas Rowlandson and various aspects of eighteenth-century life; some few links to related sites. Unfortunately, all photographs (taken of original prints or later copies published by enterprising publishers such as Boydell) appear to be underexposed (i.e. dark) and are only numbered consecutively without labels.


Haley & Steele presents: William Hogarth (1697-1764) (cached version).

American printseller's site on Hogarth, focusing on the prints. However, the original site is now closed. It included illustrations and descriptions of many plates and information about the different states and editions of Hogarth's engravings. The commentaries were provided by Edward Hammonds.








Anything that you think a Hogarth scholar might find interesting should be posted on

Please make your entry here.The Hogarth Noticeboard Click on 'The Hogarth Noticeboard'.





For those who are able to participate in this world project in the study of William Hogarth, and those who are able to furnish me with further information about their current research or recent publications on Hogarth, may I thank you in advance.

Best wishes in your work,

Bernd Krysmanski E-Mail Me








This Hogarth site has been online since September 2000.